PERSIAN AUTHORS OF ASIA MINOR PART 1

 

PERSIAN AUTHORS OF ASIA MINOR (PĀRSINEVISĀN-E ĀSIĀ-YE SAḠIR)

Introduction. After converting to Islam the Turks grew familiar with the Persian language and culture, and formed a closer relationship with Muslim Iranians. It is symbolic of this close relationship that several Saljuqs of Rum (Anatolia) chose Iranian names such as Kaykāvus and Kayḵosrov and even made Persian the official language of state and court.

After defeating the Ghaznavids in 1038, the Saljuqs left all the administrative works of government in the hands of the Iranians, to the extent that the Saljuq government appears more typically Iranian than Turkish, adopting the Iranian cultural structure and social norms prevalent in Iranian courts. This Iranian influence spread as far as India, where the courts in this period had also adopted an Iranian structure. It is indicative of the spread of Iranian culture in this period that three of the best best-known figures in the literature of Iran, Saʿdi of Shiraz (d. 1292), Amir Ḵosrov of Delhi (d. 1325, q.v.) and Jalāl-al-Din Moḥammad Rumi (d. 1273), were from Iran, India, and Anatolia respectively.

Anatolian Saljuqs (1077-1307) not only promoted Persian literature in the territories where they exerted their power, and spread it because of their devotion to Persian culture, but they also provided a secure shelter for those poets and men of learning who had escaped from the terror of the Mongols. It is evident that the astronomer Qoṭb-al-Din Maḥmud Širāzi (d. 1311) and the mystic Najm-al-Din Aḥmad Kobrā (d. 1220) began to spread their ideas in the secure political atmosphere created by the Saljuqs. Šehāb-al-Din Abu Ḥafṣ Sohravardi (d. 1234), the famous mystic, wrote in the name of the sovereigns and commanders of Anatolia who provided him with financial and moral support. Likewise, the poet, Afżal-al-Din Ḵāqāni (d. 1199), received Saljuq support.

This cultural tradition continued in Anatolia during the period of the feudal lords, in which Persian remained the common language. Indeed, ʿAziz b. Ardašir Astarābādi/Estrābādi, in his book Bazm o razm, written in Persian, states: “This book was written in Persian because the majority of the population in the Rum countries (i.e., Anatolia) were inclined toward, and even eager, to speak the Persian language, and the imperial edicts, court publishing, accounting documents, registers, laws and other documents were written in this language, and people liked Persian poetry and prose ...’ (Astarābādi/Estrābādi, p. 537).

Persian language and culture were actually so popular and dominant in this period that in the late 14th century, Moḥammad (Meḥmed) Bey, the founder and the governing head of the Qaramanids, published an official edict to end this supremacy, saying that: “The Turkish language should be spoken in courts, palaces, and at official institutions from now on!”

The Greek language also began to be spoken by the Turks during the first period of the Ottoman Empire in order to communicate with their Greek (Rumi) subjects. The poet ʿAlāʾ-al-Din ʿĀšeq Pāšā (d. 1333) mentioned in one of his poems that he knew Greek, Armenian, and Hebrew. Although the Persian language was no longer the official language of the Ottomans, they were still interested in Persian language and culture, and Persian literature was an inspiration to Turkish poets.

The Ottoman Sultan Selim I (Salim, r. 1481-1512) and the Safavid Shah Esmāʿil I (r. 1501-24), whose ideological differences made them enemies, complimented each other by their respective use of language in their poetry; Sultan Selim composed poetry in Persian and Shah Esmāʿil in Turkish. This situation no doubt gives the clearest example of the interaction between the two cultures.

During the Ottoman period, the religious antagonism between Anatolia and Iran caused the migration of men of letters from one court to another. In this period, in addition to the migrations that had begun from the time of the Saljuqs, many Persian poets and artists attached themselves to the Ottoman court. Golšani Ṣāruḵāni (15th cent.) mentions the names of such famous poets in Anatolia during the 15th century in his work (Yazıcı, 1954).

Sultan Selim I, despite his war-like spirit, had a great love for art and artists. He even forcibly took artists and poets to Istanbul from all the territories that he conquered, from Egypt to Tabriz. As a result of the new artistic and cultural climate that he created, many Iranian artists came to Istanbul in search of patronage (Sohrweide, 1970, pp. 263-302).

Although, beginning in the 19th century, Turkish art and literature gradually began to be influenced by Western culture, the cultural and literary influence of Iran continued unabated and many Persian texts were written or translated in this period in Turkey.

The following index is meant to serve as an introduction to the large corpus of Persian literature composed by authors living in Anatolia.

ABBREVIATIONS

BSOAS: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.

Bursalı: Bursalı Meḥmed Ṭāher, ʿOṯmānlı müʾellifleri, 3 vols., Istanbul, 1914-23 .

DAF : Dāneš-nāma-ye adab-e fārsi VI: adab-e fārsi dar Ānātuli wa Bālkān, ed. Ḥasan Anuša, Tehran, 2005.

DİA: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi, Istanbul, 1988-.

DJE : Dāneš-nāma-ye jehān-e Eslām.

DK : Türkçe Yazma Divanlar Kataloğu, Istanbul, n.d..

DMBE : Dāʾerat al-moʿāref-e bozorg-e Eslāmi.

EI : Encyclopaedia of Islam.

EIr.: Encyclopaedia Iranica.

Ergun : Sadeddin Nuzhet Ergun, Türk Şairleri, 3 vols., Istanbul, n.d..

GAL: Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, 2nd ed., 2 vols., Leiden, 1943-49.

GAL,Supp.: Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, Supplementband, 3 vols., Leiden, 1937-42.

İA: Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı İslâm Ansiklopedisi.

İTYK : R. Şeşen and C. Akpınar - C. İzgi, Türkiye Kütüphaneleri İslâmî Tıb Yazmaları (Arapça, Türkçe, Farsça) Kataloğu, Istanbul, 1984.

Karatay, Farsça : Fehmi Edhem Karatay, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi Farsça yazmalar kataloğu, Istanbul, 1961.

Karatay, Türkçe : Fehmi Edhem Karatay, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi Türkçe Yazmalar Kataloğu, 2 vols., Istanbul, 1961.

ML : Meydan Larousse.

MLT : E. İhsanoğlu, R. Şeşen, G. Gündüz, and M. S. Bekar, Osmanlı Mûsikî Literatürü Tarihi, Istanbul, 2003.

OALT : E. İhsanoğlu, R. Şeşen, C. İzgi, C. Akpınar, and İ. Fazlıoğlu, Osmanlı Astronomi Literatürü Tarihi, 2 vols., Istanbul, 1997.

OCLT : E. İhsanoğlu, R. Şeşen, M. S. Bekar, G. Gündüz, and A. H. Furat, Osmanlı Coğrafya Literatürü Tarihi, 2 vols., Istanbul, 2000.

OMLT : E. İhsanoğlu, R. Şeşen, and C. İzgi, Osmanlı Matematik Literatürü Tarihi,2 vols., Istanbul, 1999.

Storey: C. A. Storey, Persian Literature: A bio-biographical survey, London, 1927.

Storey-Bregel : Charles A. Storey, Persian Literature: A bio-biographical survey; ed. and tr. Yu. E. Bregel as Persidskaya Literatura: Bio-bibliograficheskiy Obzor, 3 vols., Moscow, 1972.

Storey/ Monzawi : Charles A. Storey, Persian Literature. A bio-biographical survey, ed. and tr. Yu. E. Bregel as Persidskaya Literatura: Bio-bibliograficheskiy Obzor; tr. Yaḥyā Ārianpur, Sirus Izadi, and Karim Kešāvarz as Adabiyāt-e fārsi, bar mabnā-ye taʾlif-e Estori, tarjama-ye Y. Bregel, ed. Aḥmad Monzawi, 2 vols., Tehran, 1983.

TCYK : İstanbul Kütüphaneleri Tarih-Coğrafya Yazmaları Kataloğu, Istanbul, 1943.

TDE: Türk Dünyası Edebiyatçıları Ansiklopedisi, 3 vols., Ankara, 2001-02.

TDEA : Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Ansiklopedisi, 7 vols., Istanbul, 1977-82.

TED : Atilla Özkırımlı, Türk Edebiyatı Ansiklopedisi, 4 vols., Istanbul, 1976.

TÜYATOK: Türkiye Yazmaları Toplu Kataloğu, 26 vols., Ankara 1979-2003.

VOHD, XIV/1: Wilhelm Heinz, Persische Handschriften, Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland 14/1 Wiesbaden, 1968.

VOHD, XIV/2: Soheila Divshali and Paul Luft, Persische Handschriften und einige in den Hanschriften enthaltene arabische und türkische Werke,Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland 14/2, Wiesbaden, 1980.

ZDMG: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.

--- ĀĀĀ --- Abapuş Veli (Ābāpuš Wali), (d. 890/1485). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 386)].

Âgâhî, [Şakir] (Āgāhi, Šāker), (1254-1320/1838-1902). He was teacher of Persian language and composed a stanzaic poem (tarjiʿband) called Tarab-nāma (Ergun, I, p. 16; İbnü’l-Emin, I, p. 50; [TDEA, I, p. 42; TDA, I, p. 125]).

Âgâh-i Semerkandî, [Hâfız Mehmed] (Āgāh Samarqandi, Ḥāfeẓ Moḥammad), (d. 1143/1730). He wrote poems in Persian (Ergun, I, pp. 10-13; [TDEA, I, p. 41; TDA, I, pp. 123-24]).

Ateş, Ahmed (Āteš, Aḥmad), (1917-1966). He was a scholar of Iranian and Arabic studies. He edited Moḥammad b. ʿAli Ẓahir Samarqandi’s Sendbād-nāma (Istanbul, 1948), Moḥammad b. ʿOmar Rāduyāni’s Tarjomān al-balāḡa (Istanbul, 1949), Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh Hamadāni’s Jāmiʿ al-tawāriḵ (II/4 and II/5, Ankara, 1957, 1960) and translated Rāvandi’s Rāḥat al-ṣodur wa āyat al-sorur (2 vols., Ankara, 1957, 1960). He wrote many books and articles on Persian literature and history (N. M. Çetin in Oriens XXI-XXII, 1969, pp. 622-30; Idem, in Şarkiyat Mecmuası VII, 1972, pp. 1-24; Idem, in DİA, IV, pp. 55-57; Ḥ. ʿĀlem-zāda, in DMBE, I, pp. 95-97; I. Afšār, 1383/2004, p. 1023).

Âzerî Çelebi, İbrahim (Āḏari Čelebi, Ebrāhim), (d. 993/1585). He wrote a naẓira (a poem written to resemble another poem in form and subject) on the Maḵzan al-asrār of Neẓāmi under the title of Naqš-e ḵiyāl (Bursalı, II, p. 69; Ḥasan Čelebi, I, p. 152; [C. Okuyucu, in DİA, IV, pp. 325-26]).

[Âzadî (Āzādi). Persian newspaper printed in Istanbul (DAF, VI, p. 4)].

[Aşçı-zade Hasan Çelebi (Āš≈i-zāda Ḥasan Čelebi), (d. 942/1535). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 4)].

Âhî, Benli Hasan Çelebi (Āhi, Benli Ḥasan Čelebi), (d. 923/1517). The translator of Fattāḥi Nišāburi’s Ḥosn o del (ʿĀšık Čelebi, p. 51; Ḥasan Čelebi, I, p. 194; Bursalı, II, p. 67; Ergun, I, p. 20; [M. İsen, in DİA, I, p. 527]).

[Âhî-i Herâtî (Āhi Harāti). He wrote a Šah-nāma (Bursalı, II, p. 631)].

---AAA--- [Abdal, Kara Şems (Abdāl, Qara Šams), (d. 1303/1886). He wrote poems in Persian (Ergun, I, p. 162; DAF, VI, p. 664; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., I, p. 174)].

[İbrahim Bey (Ebrāhim Bey), (d. 9th/14th century). He wrote robāʿis in Persian (ed. Kadir Güler, İbrahim Beg Divanı (İnceleme-Metin-İndeks-Sözlük), Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ph.D. diss., Kayseri, 1995 (Persian robāʿis pp. 436-37); Kartal, 1999, p. 382)].

İbrahim Efendi, Babadağî (Ebrāhim Efendi, Bābāṭāḡi), (d. 12th/18th century). The translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān (Bursalı, I, p. 259).

[İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumî (Ebrāhim Ḥaqqi Arzerumi), (d. 1194/1780). He wrote poems and works in Persian (Divān, ed. Numan Külekçi-Turgut Karabey, Erzurum, 1997; Bursalı, I, pp. 33-36; TDEA, IV, pp. 324-25; OALT, I, pp. 486-491; Mustafa Çağrıcı, in DİA, XXI, pp. 305-11; DAF, VI, pp. 336-37)].

[İbrahim b. el-Hâfız ez-Zaʿifî (Ebrāhim b. al-Ḥāfeẓ al-Żaʿifi), (d. 11th/17th century). The author of the Moškelāt-e Šāh-nāma (Flügel, I, p. 111; Y. Öz, 2002, pp. 30-31)].

İbrahim Hâlis Efendi (Ebrāhim Ḵāleṣ Efendi), (d. 1160/1747). The author of the Majmaʿ al-amṯāl (Dastur al-ʿajam) (Bursalı, I, p. 296; Karatay, Türkçe, II, pp. 34-35; [DAF, VI, p. 353, 734]).

İbrahim b. Halil, [Bayburdî] (Ebrāhim b. Ḵalil, Bāyburdi), ([d. 13th/19th century]). The translator of ʿAli b. Šehāb-al-Din Hamadāni’s Ḏaḵirat al-moluk (Bursalı, I, p. 222).

İbrahim Dede (Ebrāhim Dede), (d. 957/1550). See Şâhidî.

İbrahim-zade [Hayreddin Halil b. İbrahim] Riyazî (Ebrāhim-zāda Ḵayr-al-Din Ḵalil b. Ebrāhim Reyāżi), (d. 9th/15th century). The author of the Meftāḥ-e konuz-e arbāb al-qalam wa meṣbāḥ-e romuz-e asḥāb al-raqam, [Moškel-gošā-ye ḥesāb wa muʿżel-nomā-ye ketāb and Resāla-ye jabr o moqābala]in Persian [on mathematics] (Bursalı, III, p. 253; [OMLT, I, pp. 33-36; DAF, VI, pp. 817-818]).

İbrahim b. Abdullah (Ebrāhim b. ʿAbd-Allāh). The translator of [ʿAziz b. Moḥammad] al-Nasafi’s Maqṣad al-aqsā (Süleymaniye Library, Ali Nihad Tarlan, 34 Sü-Tarlan 142; [TÜYATOK, 34, Istanbul, Ankara, 1981, p. 24]).

İbrahim-i Kırımî (Ebrāhim Qeremi), (d. 1043/1632). The author of the Ḥāšiyya ʿalā’l-Jāmi (Bursalı, I, p. 23).

[İbrahim Miskin (Ebrāhim Meskin), (d. after 835/1432). The author of the Merqād al-kalām al-ʿarab wa’l-ʿajam (Manisa İl Halk Library, no. 2856, 2886; DAF, VI, p. 796)].

[İsmet b. Mehmed Ali], Müstecâbî-zade (ʿEṣmat b. Moḥammad ʿAli, Mostajābi-zāda), (d. 1335/1916-17). The translator of ʿOmar Ḵayyām’s Robāʿiyyāt (ed. M. F. Andı, 1998; Bursalı, II, p. 345; DAF, VI, p. 799; M. F. Andı, in DİA, XXXII, pp. 131-32).

[İbrahim Müteferrika (Ebrāhim Motafarreqa), (d. 1160/1747). The author of the Ejmāl-e aḥwāl-e Nāder-šāh (TCYK, I, p. 315; T. Halasi Kun, in İA, V/2, 896-890; E. Afyoncu, in DİA, XXI, pp. 325-27)].

İbrahim Nezir (Ebrāhim Naẓir), (d. 1188/1774). The translator of Moḥammad ʿAwfi’s Jawāmiʿ al-ḥekāyāt wa lawāmiʿ al-rewāyāt (Bursalı, II, pp. 45-47).

İbrahim Vahdi Efendi (Ebrāhim Waḥdi Efendi), (d. 1162/1749). The commentator of Jāmi’s poems (Bursalı, III, p. 16).

İbn Bibi, [Nâsıreddin Hüseyin b. Muhammed b. Ali Caferî Ragudî] (Ebn Bibi, Nāṣer-al-Din Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad b. ʿAli Jaʿfari Raḡodi), (d. after 680/1281). The author of the al-Awāmer al-ʿAlāʾeyya fi’l-omur al-ʿalāʾeyya on Saljuq history (A. S. Erzi, in İA, V/2, pp. 712-18; [H. W. Duda, in EI2, III, pp. 737-38; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., VI, pp. 8-9; A. Özaydın, in DİA, XIX, pp. 379-82]).

İbn Vefâ, Muslihuddin Mustafa, Şeyh (Ebn Wafā, Moṣleḥ-al-Din Muṣṭafā, Šaiḵ ([d. 896/1491]). He wrote a divān in Persian (See Süleymaniye Library, Aya Sofya, no. 3925; [TDEA, VII, pp. 522-23; R. Öngören, in DİA, XXXI, pp. 269-71]).

İbn Kemal (Ebn Kamāl). See Kemal Paşa-zade.

Ebu Bekir el-Zeki, el-Mütetabib el-Konevî (Abu Bakr al-Zaki, al-Motaṭabeb al-Qunawi ([d. 7th/13th century]). The author of the Rawżat al-kottāb wa hadiqāt al-albāb ([ed. Mir Wadud Sayyid Yunosi, Tabriz, 1349/1970; Riaḥi, pp. 127-28]; ed. Sevim, Ankara, 1972; Ateş, 1945, p. 120).

Ebu Bekir b. Rüstem-i Şirvanî (Abu Bakr b. Rostam Širvāni), (d. 1139/1726). The commentator of the Tāriḵ-e Waṣṣāf (Bursalı, I, p. 233).

Ebu Cafer Mehmed el-Berze’î (Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad al-Barzaʾi), (d. 616/1219). The author of the Rawżat al-moridin (Ateş, 1945, p. 101).

Ebu Hanife Abdü’l-Kerim (Abu Ḥanifa ʿAbd-al-Karim), (d. 6th/12th century). He gathered the robāʿis by Anwari, Masʿud Saʿd Salmān, Sanāʾi, Abu Saʿid Abu’l-Ḵair and Abu’l-Faraj (Ateş, 1945, p. 107).

Ebu Tahir Muhammed b. Hasan b. Ali b. Musa el-Tarsusî (Abu Tāher Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAli b. Musā al-Ṭarsusi, (d. 6th/12th century). The author of the Dārāb-nāma, [the Tāriḵ-e Eskandari, the Dāstān-eQerān-e Ḥabaši, the Mosib-nāma, the Jang-nāma-ye Moḥammad Ḥanafiyya, the Jang-nāma-ye Emām Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin and the Abu Moslim-nāma] (Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Library, Revan Köşkü, no. 1517; H. Ethé, p. 787; [Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Ms. or. 3180; VOHD, XIV/1, pp. 82-83 no. 93; Bayezid Devlet Library, no. 2442; P. Horn, p. 504 no. 978; Dārāb-nāma, ed. Ḏabih-Allāh Ṣafā, 2 vols., 1344-46/1965-67; Abu Moslim-nāma, ed. Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾi, 1355/1976; ed. Ḥosayn Esmāʿili, 1380/2001; DAF, VI, pp. 33-34, 369-70]).

[Ebu’l-Hayr Fâzıl-ı Şirazî (Abu’l-Ḵayr Fāżel Širāzi), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Resāla dar fan-e hayʾat (OALT, I, pp. 227-28)].

Ebu’l-Feth Şerefî Şerifî Hüseyin [Arabşahî b. Muhammad b. Makdum] (Abu’l-Fatḥ Šarafi Šarifi Ḥosayn ʿArabšāhi b. Moḥammad b. Makdum), ([d. 976/1568-69]). He came to Istanbul and composed a resāla to criticise and refute the Ṣafawids and the Šiʿism ([E. Glassen], in EIr., I, p. 285).

[Ebu’l-Fazl Münşî-i Şirazî (Abu’l-Fażl Monši Širāzi), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Dastur al-salṭana (DAF, VI, pp. 32, 825-26)].

[Ebu’l-Velid b. Abdü’l-Aziz b. Ali b. Abdü’l-Aziz (Abu’l-Walid b. ʿAbd-al-ʿAziz b. ʿAli b. ʿAbd-al-ʿAziz), (d. 976/1568). The author of the Ketāb al-eqnā fi ʿilm al-ḥesāb wa’l-mesāha (OMLT, I, pp. 75-76)].

[Ahmed el-Üstadî Mekkî-i Tebesî (Aḥmad al-Ostādi Makki Ṭabasi), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Zobdat al-ʿilāj for Sultan Süleyman (Solaymān) the Magnificent (1520-1566) in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 425)].

Ahmed [-i İstanbulî] (Aḥmad Estānbuli), (d. 970/1562). Ottoman poet and composer. He wrote poems in Persian (Ḥasan Čelebi, I, p. 141; Ergun, I, p. 270).

Ahmed Efendi (Aḥmad Efendi), (d. 971/1563). The author of the Qawānin-e ṣarf-e Fārs^, he was also known as Laʿli (Bursalı, II, pp. 51-53).

[Ahmed b. İshâk Bakkâl-ı Kayserî (Aḥmad b. Esḥāq Baqqāl Qayṣari), (d. 9th/15th). The author of the Tāj-al-roʾus wa ḡorra al-nofus), a Persian-Turkish dictionary (DAF, VI, p. 234)].

[Ahmed-i Buhara’î, Emir (Aḥmad Boḵārāʾi, Amir), (d. 922/1516). Ottoman shaikh from Boḵārā. He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 394)].

Ahmed Efendi, İshâk Hocası (Aḥmad Efendi, Esḥāq Ḵʷājası), (d. 1122/1710). [The author of the Waḥdat-nāma-ye ʿālam-angiz and the Ṣanduqāt al-maʿāref in Turkish and Persian]. He wrote Persian and Turkish poems. He was also known in Persian poems as “Ḵʷāja”, in Ottoman Turkish poems as “Aḥmadi” ([DAF, VI, pp. 35-36, 545]; Bursalı, I, pp. 232-33).

[Ahmed Bey b. İskender Paşa (Aḥmad Bey b. Eskender Pāšā), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 408)].

Ahmed Bey, Hacı (Aḥmad Bey, Ḥājji), (d. 1299/1881). The commentator of the Toḵfa-ye Wahbi in Persian.

Ahmed Paşa, Bursevî (Aḥmad Pāšā, Borsawi), (d. 904/1497). Ottoman poet. He wrote poems in Persian, Turkish and Arabic ([divān, ed. A. N. Tarlan, Istanbul, 1966 (Persian, pp. 358-67); Kartal, 1999, p. 387; M. F. Köprülü], in İA, I, pp. 187-92).

Ahmed I (Aḥmad I), (r. 1603-1607, d. 1026/1617). [Ottoman Sultan]. He wrote poems in Persian (DK, II, p. 235; [Millet Library, Ali Emirî, Manzum, no. 53; M. İlgürel, in DİA, II, pp. 30-33]).

Ahmed Tâ’ib, Osman-zade, (Aḥmad Tāʾeb, ʿOṯmān-zāda), (d. 1137/1724). See Tâʾib Ahmed Efendi, Osman-zade.

[Ahmed Süreyyâ el-Bağdadî (Aḥmad Ṯorayyā al-Baḡdādi). The author of the Rāḥat al-arwāḥ in Persian (Istanbul, 1926).

Ahmed Câvid [b. Mustafa] (Aḥmad Jāwed b. Moṣṭafā), (d. 1218/1803). The translator of the Kanz al-eštehā and divān by Aḥmad b. Abu Esḥāq Širāzi (d. 827/1424) (Bursalı, III, p. 42; Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Library, Hazine, no. 1186; [DAF, VI, pp. 271-72]).

[Ahmed Çelebi (Aḥmad Čelebi), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 408)].

[Ahmed Çelebi (Aḥmad Čelebi), (d. 970/1563). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, pp. 408-409)].

[Ahmed b. Mehmed-i Cezerî (Aḥmad b. Moḥammad Jazari), (d. 902/1496-97). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 39)].

[Ahmed b. Mehmed-i Bursevî, İmam-zade (Aḥmad b. Moḥammad Bursawi, Emām-zāda), (d. 977/1569). The author of the Moʿammā in Persian (Bursalı, III, p. 10; DAF, VI, p. 126)].

[Ahmed Cevdet, Hoca-zade (Aḥmed Jewdet, Ḵʷāja-zāda). The author of the Fārs^ ṣarf ü naḥiv (Fārsi ṣarf o naḥew) and the Muʿallem-e qawāʿed-e Fārsi (Istanbul, 1309)].

Ahmed-i Sânî b. Hasan (Aḥmad Ṯāni b. Ḥasan), (d. 1145/1732). The translator of the Toḥfat al-muʾmenin by Mir Moḥammad b. Ḥosayn Tankābuni under the title of Ḡonyat al-moḥaṣṣelin (Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Library, Emenet Hazinesi, no. 1815; Karatay, Türkçe, II, p. 379; Adıvar, p. 176).

Ahmad Hâtim Efendi, Akovalı-zade (Aḥmad Ḵātem Efendi, Āqovalı-zāda), (d. 1168/1755). The author of the Loḡat-e Nabi ʿalayh al-salam [and the commentator of the Toḥfa-ye Šahedi in Persian]. He also wrote qaṣida and ḡazals in Persian (Bursalı, II, p. 166; Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Library, Hazine, no. 1095; [DAF, VI, p. 351]).

Ahmed Efendi, Nâilî (Aḥmad Efendi, Nāʾeli). See Nâilî Ahmed Efendi, Mirza-zade.

Ahmed Hamdullah Efendi (Aḥmad Ḥamd-Allāh Efendi), (d. 1317/1899). The author of the Taḏkera al-moštaqāt and the Qawāʿed-e Fārsi (Bursalı, I, pp. 248-49).

Ahmed-i Dâʿî (Aḥmad Dāʿi), (d. after 824/1421). He wrote a divān and many works in Persian. He also translated ʿAṭṭār’s Taḏkerat al-awliyā and Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi’s Si faṣl and Moḵtaṣar dar maʿrefat-e taqwim ([divān, ed. Tolga Ocak, Aḥāl wa āṯār-e wa taḥlil-e ešʿar-e divān-e fārsi-ye Aḥmad Dāʿi, Ph.D. diss., Dānešgāh-e Tehran, Tehrān, 1352/1973; M. Dizer – T. N. Gencan, Resāla-ye si faṣl, Istanbul, 1984]; Ertaylan, 1952; Ergun, III, p. 1119; TÜYATOK, 34, Sü, no. 187; [Kartal, 1999, p. 116; OALT, I, pp. 2-5; G. Kut, inDİA, II, pp. 56-58]).

Ahmed Daniş [b. Mehmed-i Manastırî] (Aḥmad Dāneš [b. Moḥammad Manāsteri]), (d. 1316/1898). The author of the Majmuʿa-ye qawāʿed-e Fārsi, [the translator of the Maqāmāt-e Ḥariri] and the commentator of the divān by Sultan Selim I (Bursalı, I, p. 310; [DAF, VI, p. 372]).

Ahmed Dede, Fasih (Aḥmad Dede, Faṣiḥ), (d. 1111/1699). He wrote a Persian divān and translated the Monāẓara-ye gol o bolbol (Istanbul, 1285/1868) ([TDEA, III, p. 160; DAF, VI, pp. 646-47]).

[Ahmed-i Racî (Aḥmad Raji), (d. after 1030/1621). The commentator of ʿAbd-al-Vājed Kutāhi’s Šarḥ-e si faṣl (OALT, I, pp. 266-67)].

Ahmed Rasim (Aḥmed Rāsem), (d. 1932). The author of the Yeni uṣ¨l ṣarf-ı Fārs^ (Yeni oṣul ṣarf-e Fārsi) (Ergun, I, p. 343).

Ahmed Rasim Efendi, Fudalacı-zade (Aḥmad Rāsem) Efendi, Fudalājı-zāda), (d. 1270/1853). The translator of the dictionary Loḡāt-e Fārsiyya, containing 30,000 words (Bursalı, II, pp. 199-200).

Ahmed Remzi Akyürek (Aḥmad Remzi Akyürek), (d. 1364/1944). The author of the Manẓum qawāʿed-e Fārsi, [the Toḥfa-ye Ramzi, a Persian dictionary in verse-form] and a Persian divān [(for autograph see Konya Mevlânâ Müzesi, no. 5436). The translator of Wāḥedi’s Gol o bolbol under the title of Golzār-e ʿašq and the editor of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maktubāt (Hasibe Mazıoğlu, Ahmed Remzi Akyürek ve Şiirler, Ankara, 1985; Idem, in DİA, II, pp. 304-305; TDA, I, pp. 297-99)].

Ahmed Dede (Aḥmad Dede), (d. 1085/1674). The commentator of ʿUrfi Širāzi’s divān under the title of Šerḥ-e moškelāt-e ʿUrfi-ye Širāzi (S. N. Ergun, 1933).

Ahmed Resmî (Aḥmad Rasmi), ([d. 1197/1783]). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Pand-nāma (Bursalı, III, p. 159; [F. Babinger], in İA, I, pp. 202-203; [B. Kütükoğlu, in DİA, II, pp. 121-22]).

Ahmed Riyazî b. Kadı Sinan (Aḥmad Reyāżi b. Qāżi Senān), (d. 10th/16th century). The commentator of Jāmi’s divān (Bursalı, II, p. 181).

Ahmed-i Rumî (Aḥmad Rumi), (d. 8th/14th century). The author of the Daqāʾik al-ḥaqāʾiq [and the Daqāʾik al-ṭariq] ([Daqāʾik al-ḥaqāʾiq, ed. Sayyid Moḥammad Reżā Jelāli Nāyini-Moḥammad Širvāni, 1354/1975; Daqāʾik al-ṭariq, ed. Moḥsen Keyāni, Tehran, 1378/1999; Alphons C. M. Hamer, in EI2, Sup., pp. 49-50; T. Yazıcı, in DİA, I, pp. 131-32; DAF, VI, pp. 385-87]).

[Ahmed-i Sivasî b. Ahmed-i Domanisî (Aḥmad Sivāsi b. Aḥmad Domānisi), (d. after 693/1293). The author of the Mojmal al-aqwāl fi’l-ḥekem wa’l-amṯāl (ed. faks. Iraj Afšār – Maḥmud Omidsālār, Tehran, 1381/2002; DAF, VI, pp. 735-36)].

Ahmed b. Abdü’l-evvel el-Kazvinî (Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-al-Awwal al-Qazwini), (d. 966/1558). Ottoman scholar of Iranian origin (Ḏayl-e šaqāʾeq, p. 14).

Ahmed Avni Konuk (Aḥmed ʿAwni Qunuq), (d. 1357/1938). The translator of the Resāla-ye Sepehsālār [and Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi] ([ed. S. Eraydın-M. Tahralı, 2 vols., 2004]; Gölpınarlı, 1953, p. 14).

Ahmed Keşfî (Aḥmad Kašfi), (d. 12th/19th century). The author of the Tadrisāt-e Fārsiyya (Istanbul, 1310).

Ahmed, Kutbuddin (Aḥmad, Qoṭb-al-Din), (d. 9th/15th century). He was physician of Ottoman Sultan Meḥmed II and of Iranian origin (Gelibolulu Moṣṭafā ʿĀli, Konh al-aḵbār, İstanbul Üniversitesi Library, TY, no. 5959, fol. 125a; Uzunçarşılı, II, p. 599).

Ahmed Fevzi (Aḥmad Fawzi), (d. 978/1570). The author of the Persian-Turkish dictinary Meftāḥ al-maʿāni (Bursalı, I, pp. 392-93).

Ahmed Sabih Efendi (Aḥmad Ṣabiḥ Efendi), (d. 1198/1783). The commentator of ʿUrfi Širāzi’s divān (Bursalı, II, p. 286).

Ahmed Sâfî Efendi, [Şeyh] (Aḥmad Ṣāfi Efendi, Šaiḵ), (d. 1290/1873). The translator of Jāmi’s Resāla-ye ʿaruż under the title of Jām-e moẓaffar [(Istanbul, 1267)] (Bursalı, I, p. 107; [TDEA, VII, p. 412]).

[Ahmed-i Kırımî (Aḥmad Qeremi), (d. 879/1474-75). The author of the Golšan-e rāz in Persian (Wali-Meftāḥ, p. 283; DAF, VI, p. 50)].

Ahmed Kemal Paşa (Aḥmad Kamāl Pāšā), (d. 1304/1889). The author of the Resāla-ye taʿlim-e Fārsiyya and the Qawāʿed-e Fārsiyya (İbnü’l-Emin, II, p. 819).

Ahmed Kemal Dede (Aḥmad Kamāl Dede), (d. 1026/1617). The translator of the Manāqeb al-ʿārefin by Aflāki (TCYK, I, p. 450; Manāqeb al-ʿārefin, ed. T. Yazıcı, introduction, I, p. 25).

Ahmed Âşık Dede (Aḥmad ʿĀšeq Dede). See Ahmed Müneccimbaşı Derviş Âşık Dede.

Ahmed Neşâtî-i Edirnevî (Aḥmad Nešāṭi-ye Edernewî), (d. 1058/1648). The author of Qawāʿed al-dorriyya fi qawāʿed al-lesān al-Fārsiyya bi’t-Torki (Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Library, Hazine, no. 1678; Karatay, II, p. 35).

Ahmedî-i Germiyanî, [Tâceddin İbrahim b. Hızır] (Aḥmadi Germiyāni, Tāj-al-Din Ebrāhim b. Ḵʷeżr), (d. 815/1413). [The author of the Mizān al-adab, the Merqad al-adab and the Meʿyār al-adab in Persian and], the translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Asrār-nāma, Salmān Sāwaji’s Jemšid o Ḵuršid [(ed. M. Akalın, Ankara, 1975)] and Rašid-al-Din Waṭwāṭ’s Ḥadāʾeq al-seḥr under the title of Badāyiʿ al-seḥr fi sanāyiʿ al-šeʿir ([M. F. Köprülü], in İA, I, pp. 216-21; Tāj al-tawāriḵ, I, p. 255; II, p. 422; Ergun, I, p. 369; Bursalı, II, p. 73; [DAF, VI, pp. 795-96; Kartal, 1999, pp. 377-78; G. L. Lewis, in EI2, I, p. 309; G. Kut, in DİA, II, pp. 165-67]).

Ahmed Mâhir Efendi (Aḥmad Māher Efendi), ([d. 1341/1922]). The translator of Saʿdi’s Bustān (İbnü’l-Emin, V, pp. 902-904; [A. Abdulkadiroğlu, in DİA, II, p. 98; TDA, I, pp. 165-66]).

[Ahmed Müneccimbaşı Derviş Âşık Dede (Aḥmad Monajjembašı Derviš ʿĀšeq Dede), (d. 1113/1702). The author of the Jāmiʿ al-duwal in Arabic and the translator of ʿUbayd Zākāni’s Laṭāʾef [(Del-gošā)] from Persian into Turkish [and ʿAṣām-al-Din Esferāini’s Esteʿāra and Resāla-ye beyān al-majāz from Persian into Arabic] ([M. Tayyib Gökbilgin], in İA, VIII, pp. 801-806; A. Ağırakça, in DİA, XXXII, pp. 4-6)].

Ahmed Nizameddin b. Şehâbeddin-i Bağdadî (Aḥmad Neẓām-al-Din b. Šehāb-al-Din Baḡdādi), (d. 957/1550). The translator of anonymous Jāmiʿ al-manāqeb (TCYK, I, p. 452).

Ahter (Aḵtar). Persian newspaper printed in Istanbul [(L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in EIr., I, p. 730; DAF, VI, pp. 58-59)].

[Ahî Çelebi, Mehmed b. Kemaleddin (Aḵi Čelebi, Moḥammad b. Kamāl-al-Din), (d. 930/1524). Ottoman physician. He wrote the Fawāʾed al-solṭāniyya in Persian (A. H. Bayat, in DİA, I, pp. 528-29; DAF, VI, pp. 65-66)].

[Edâ’î-i Şirazî, [Molla Muhammed] (Adāʾi Širāzi, Mollā Moḥammad), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Salim-nāma (ed. A. Bilgen, Ankara, 1987; Riāḥi, pp. 176-77)].

İdris-i Bidlisî, Hakimüddin İdris b. Hüsameddin Ali el-Bidlisî (Edris Bedlisi, Ḥakim-al-Din Edris b. Ḥosam-al-Din ʿAli al-Bedlisi), (d. 926/1520). The author of the Hašt behešt, the Selimšah-nāma, [the Qānun-e ṣāhanšāh,the Rabiʿ al-abrār, the Qaṣāʾed o monšāʾāt o morasalāt, the Merāt al-jamāl, the Merāt al-ʿuššāq, the Monāẓara-ye ruza o ʿeyd, the Resāla-ye bahāriyya, the Resāla-ye ḵāzāniyya and the Tarjoma wa naẓm-e ḥadiṯ-e arbaʿin] (Storey, I, pp. 412-416; [Selim Šah-nāma, Turk. tr. Hicabi Kırlangıç, Ankara, 2001; Babinger, 1992, pp. 51-55; Bayraktar, pp. 1-52; C. H. Fleischer, in EIr., IV, pp. 75-76; A. Özcan, in DİA, XVII, pp. 271-273; Idem, in DİA, XXI, pp. 485-88; DAF, VI, pp. 75-78, 474-75, 778, 822; Özgüdenli, pp. 442-44]).

[İdris Efendi (Edris Efendi), (d. after 9th/15th century). The author of the Ketāb-e Šatrān≈-nāma on chess (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Ms. Orient. Oct. 2311; VOHD, XIV/1, pp. 23-24 no. 22)].

[Erguvan Hatun (Arḡuvān Ḵātun), (d. 7th/13th century). Saljuq poet in Anatolia (Riāḥi, pp. 112-13)].

[Erzi, Adnan Sadık (Arzi, Adnān Ṣādeq), (1923-1990). He was a scholar of Iranian studies and an expert for Persian manuscripts. He edited the first part of Bibi’s al-Awāmir al-ʿAlāʾeyya fi’l-omur al-ʿalāʾeyya (with Prof. N. Lugal, I, Ankara, 1956), an anonymous Persian monšaʾāt (with Prof. N. Lugal, Fatih devrine âit münşeat mecmuası, Istanbul, 1956), Tāji-zāda Saʿdi Čelebi’s Monšaʾāt (with Prof. N. Lugal, Istanbul, 1956), Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Ḥāleq al-Mayhani’s Dastur-e dabiri (Ankara, 1962) and Ḥasan b. ʿAbd-al-Muʾmen al-Ḵoʾi’s Ḡonyat al-kāteb wa monyat al-ṭāleb and Rosum al-rasāʾel wa nojum al-fażāʾel (Ankara, 1963) (Meftāḥ-Wali, pp. 485-486; Iraj Afšār, 1383/2004, pp. 1071-72; Idem, “Doktur Ṣādeq ʿAdnān Arzi,” Āyanda XVII/1-4 1370/1991, pp. 189-91; DAF, VI, p. 86)].

[İzbudak, Veled Çelebi (İzbudāq, Walad Čelebi), (d. 14th/20th century). The author of the Lisān-ı Fārs^ (Lesān-e Fārsi) (Istanbul, 1327)].

Esterâbâdî, Aziz b. Erdeşir (Astarābādi, ʿAziz b. Ardašir, (d. 8th/14th century). The author of the Bazm o razm (ed. Kilisli Muallim Rıfat, Istanbul, 1928; [Turk. tr. Mürsel Öztürk, Bezm ü rezm, Ankara, 1990; Özgüdenli, p. 441]).

[Esrar Dede, Mehmed b. Ahmed (Asrār Dede, Moḥammad b. Aḥmad), (d. 1211/1797). The author of the Taḏkera-ye šoʿarā-ye Mawlawiyya (Taḏkera-ye Asrār Dede). He wrote poems in Persian, Turkish and Arabic (H. Aksoy, in DİA, XI, pp. 432-34)].

[İshâk Çelebi b. İbrahim, Kılıç-zade (Esḥāq Čelebi b. Ebrāhim, Qele≈-zāda, (d. 949/1542). He wrote poems in Persian (Divān, ed. Mehmet Çavuşoğlu-M. Ali Tanyeri, Istanbul, 1990 (Persian pp. 359-78); Kartal, 1999, p. 438)].

İshâk Efendi, [Şeyhü’l-İslâm], İsmail Efendi-zade (Esḥāq Efendi, Šaiḵ-al-Eslām, Esmāʿil Efendi-zāda), (d. 1147/1734). [The author of the Resāla dar masāʾel in Persian]. He also wrote a divān in Persian and translated Abu’l-Layṯ al-Samarqandi’s Bustān al-ʿārefin (Bursalı, I, p. 236; ML, VI, p. 414; [M. Nur Doğan, in DİA, XXII, pp. 530-31; Nur Doğan, 1993, pp. 235-62]).

[İshâk b. İsmail el-Kürdî (Esḥāq b. Esmāʿil al-Kordi), (d. 12th/18th century). The author of the Resāla dar masāʾel (OALT, I, p. 502)].

Esad Hoca, Yanyalı (Esʿad Ḵʷāja, Yānyalı), (d. 1143/1730). The translator of the Šefā by Ebn Sinā [Avicenna)] [and the Toḥfa-ye Šāhedi](Bursalı, I, p. 234; [DAF, VI, p. 112]).

Esad, Şeyhü’l-İslâm Hoca-zade (Esʿad, Šaiḵ-al-Eslām Ḵʷāja-zāda), (d. 1192/1778). The translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān (Ergun, III, p. 1321; [M. Aktepe], in İA, IV, p. 362).

[Esad Efendi, Mehmed, Şeyhü’l-İslâm Hoca-zade (Esʿad Efendi, Moḥammad, Šaiḵ-al-Eslām Ḵʷāja-zāda), (d. 1034/1625). The translator of the Saʿdi’s Golestān [under the title of Gol-e ḵandān]. He wrote poems in Persian, Turkish and Arabic (M. Aktepe, in İA, IV, pp. 358-59; M. Aktepe, in DİA, XI, pp. 340-41; M. Aktepe, in EI2, II, p. 703; DAF, VI, pp. 107-108)].

Esad Mehmed Efendi, Ebu İshak İsmail Efendi-zade, Şeyhü’l-İslâm (Esʿad Moḥammad Efendi, Ab¨ Esḥāq Esmāʿil Efendi-zāde, Šaiḵ-al-Eslām), ([d. 1166/1753]). The author of the dictionaries Lahjat al-loḡāt (Turkish-Arabic-Persian) and Tarjomān al-loḡāt (Arabic-Persian-Turkish). [He wrote also poems in Persian, Turkish and Arabic] (Ergun, III, p. 1329; Bursalı, I, p. 238; [M. C. Baysun, in İA, IV, pp. 259-62; L. Beyreli, 1988; Nur Doğan, 1987; Idem, 1990; Idem, in DİA, XI, pp. 338-40]).

Esad Mehmed Dede (Esʿad Moḥammad Dede), (d. 1329/1911). The author of the Nomuna-ye qawāʿed-e Fārsi, the translator of Šaiḵ ʿEmād-al-Din’s Żiyāʾ al-qolub, and the commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi and Abu Saʿid Abu’l-Ḵair’s robāʿiyyāt (Bursalı, II, p. 87).

Esad, Mehmed, Vâkʿa-nüvis (Esʿad, Moḥammad, Wāqʿa-nuvis), (d. 1264/1848). The translator of Moṣleḥ-al-Din Lāri’s Merāt al-adwār wa merqāt al-aḵbār (Bursalı, III, p. 26; TCYK, I, p. 63; [M. Aktepe], in İA, IV, p. 363; [Z. Yılmazer, in DİA, XI, pp. 341-45]).

Esad Paşa b. Mustafa Paşa, Köprülü-zade (Esʿad Pāšā b. Moṣṭafā Pāšā, Kuprili-zāda), (d. 12th/18th century). The translator of the Yusof o Zaliḵā (Bursalı, I, p. 364; [DAF, VI, pp. 587-88]).

İskender Paşa-zade Derviş Bey. See Derviş Bey b. İskender Paşa.

[İsmail (Esmāʿel), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Kanz al-jawāher al-saniyya fi fotuḥat al-Solaymāniyya (ed. and Turk. tr. B. Üçler-Bilgen, Ankara, 1990)].

İsmail-i Ankaravî (Esmāʿil Ānqarawi), (d. 1041/1631). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi (Bursalı, I, p. 24; [Anqarawi, Šarḥ-e Matnawi-ye maʿnawi, Cairo, 1250; Istanbul, 1289; Persian tr. ʿEsmat Sattār-zāda, 15 vols., Tehran, 1348/1969-1374/1995; S. Ceyhan, 2005; DAF, VI, pp. 113-14, 507-509; E. Yetik, in DİA, III, pp. 211-13; H. Algar, in EIr., II, p. 100).

İsmail Hakkı Celvetî, [Bursevî or Üsküdarî] (Esmāʿil Ḥaqqi J2alwati, Bursawi or Uskudāri), (d. 1137/1725). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi, ʿAṭṭār’s Pand-nāma and Saʿdi’s Bustān (Bursalı, I, p. 28; [R. Duru, 1998; T. Onat, 1998; A. Taştan, 1999; İ. Güleç, 2005; G. Kut, in EI2, IV, pp. 191-192; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., VIII, p. 627; A. Namlı-Y. Ş. Yavuz-C. Karadaş, in DİA, XXIII, pp. 102-10; DAF, VI, pp. 339-41, 421]).

İsmail Âsım, Çelebi-zade (Esmāʿil ʿĀṣem, Čelebi-zāda), (d. 1173/1759). The translator of the Tāriḵ-e nawāder-e Čin o Mā≈in (Bursalı, III, p. 44).

İsmail Müfid (Esmāʿil Mofid), (d. 1217/1802). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Pand-nāma [and Jāmi’s Lawāyeḥ] (Bursalı, I, p. 243).

[Esirî (Esiri), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Ṣefāt al-nabi. He was a poet of Iranian origin(Kartal, 1999, pp. 423-24; DAF, VI, p. 116)].

Eşref (Ašraf), (d. 1331/1912). The author of the books İran’da Yangın Var (Iran is on fire) and Šāh ve Pādiṣāh (Šāh o Pādešāh) (Ergun, III, p. 1367).

Eşref, Merzifonlu Abdu’r-Rahman (Ašraf, Merzifonli ʿAbd-al-Rahmān), (d. 1161/1748). The commentator of the Moʿammā-ye Jāmi (Ergun, III, p. 1366; ML, I, p. 23).

İşkurt Dede (Ešqurt Dede). The author of the Ṣalāt-nāma in Persian (See Millet Library, Persian, no. 1043).

[Afşar, Rıza Han-ı Kazvinî (Afšār, Reżā Ḵān Qazvini), (d. 14th/20th century). The author of the Parvāz-e negāreš-e Fārsi (Istanbul, 1300).

Eflâkî, Şemseddin Ahmed (Aflāki, Šams-al-Din Aḥmad), (d. 761/1360). The author of the Manāqeb al-ʿārefin (ed. T. Yazıcı, 2 vols., Ankara, 1959; Turk. tr. T. Yazıcı, 2 vols., Ankara, 1953-1954; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., I, p. 567).

Eflâtûn-ı Şirvanî (Aflāṭun Širvāni), (d. 977/1569). OttomanŠāh-nāma-writer. He wrote poems in Persian. He also used the name Esiri in Persian poems and Ḵazāni in Turkish poems (Gelibolulu Moṣṭafā ʿĀli, Konh al-aḵbār, fol. 61a; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 291, 294; [Kartal, 1999, p. 423; Z. Ertuğ, in DİA, XIV, p. 484]).

Aksarayî, Cemaleddin Muhammed (Aqsarāʾi, Jamāl-al-Din Moḥammad), (d. 791/1379). Ottoman scholar, whose ancestor was Faḵr-al-Din Rāzi (Šams-al-Din Sâmî, I, p. 264; Adıvar, p. 11; Hammer, I, p. 216; Bursalı, I, p. 266).

Aksarayî, [Mahmud b. Muhammed] (Aqsarāʾi, Maḥmud b. Moḥammad), (d. 8th/14th century). The author of the Mosāmarat al-aḵbār wa mosāyarat al-aḵyār (ed. Osman Turan, Ankara, 1944; [Ger. tr. Fikret Işıltan, Breslau, 1943; Turk. tr. Mürsel Öztürk, Ankara, 2000]).

Akyürek (Aqyürek). See Ahmed Remzi Akyürek.

[İlâhî, Ahmed (Elāhi, Aḥmad), (d. 9th/15th century). The commentator of the Meftāḥ al-ḡayb by Ṣadr-al-Din Qunawi. He also wrote poems in Persian (Laṭifi, I, pp. 50-51; Divān, ed. İ. H. Ertaylan, Istanbul, 1961; DAF, VI, pp. 123-124, 515; Kartal, 1999, p. 399)].

[İlâhî, Molla Abdullah-ı Simavî (Elāhi, Mollā ʿAbd-Allāh Simavi), (d. 9th/15th century). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Asrār-nāma (ed. Hayati Yavuzer, Ankara 1988; Kartal, 1999, pp. 138-139)].

Altıparmak (Altıpārmaq). See Mehmed b. Mehmed, Altıparmak.

Elif Ahmed Efendi, Reca’î-zade (Alef Aḥmad Efendi, Rajāʾi-zāda), (d. /1345/1926). He wrote a divān in Persian (Ergun, III, p. 1239).

[Ülfetî, Hüseyin (Olfati, Ḥosayn), (d. 12th/18th century). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 124)].

Elvan-ı Şirazî, (Alwān Širāzi), ([d. after 829/1426]). The translator of Maḥmud Šabestari’s Golšan-e rāz in verse-form (TEA, II, p. 439; [M. Özkan, in DİA, XI, pp. 67-68]).

[İlyas b. Ahmed el-Kayserî (Elyās b. Aḥmad al-Qayṣari), (d. 6th/12th century). The author of the Kašf al-ʿaqaba, first Persian work in Anatolia (See Majmuʿa, Süleymaniye Library, Fatih, no. 5426, fols. 244a-261a; H. Ritter, Der Islam XXV, 1938, pp. 65-67; Ateş, 1945, pp. 122-123; Mikâil Bayram, “Anadolu’da Telif Edilen İlk Eser. Keşfu’l-ʿAkabe”, İ.Ü.E.F. İslâm Tetkikleri Enstitüsü Dergisi VII/3-4, 1979, pp. 291-307; ed. Mikâil Bayram, Anadolu’da Kaleme Alınan İlk Farsça Eser. Keşfu’l-ʿAkabe, Konya, 1981].

Emr[î], Emrullah (Emri, Amr-Allāh), ([d. 983/1575]). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Pand-nāma [and Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi’s Tāriḵ-e gozida in 949/1549](TEA, II, p. 442; Ergun, III, p. 1276; [Emre, Tercüme-i pend-nâme-i ʿAṭṭâr, ed. Azmi Bilgin, Istanbul, 1998; M. A. Y. Saraç, in DİA, XI, p. 164; DAF, VI, p. 128]).

[Emre, Ahmed Cevâd (Emre, Aḥmad Jawād), (1887-1961). The author of the Lesān-e Fārsi (Istanbul, 1327)].

[Ummü’l-Veled-zade, Zeynü’l-Abidin Abdü’l-Aziz b. Hüsameddin Hüseyin (Omm-al-Walad-zāda, Zayn-al-ʿĀbidin ʿAbd-al-ʿAziz b. Ḥosām-al-Din Ḥosayn), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 128)].

Emir Efendi or Küçük Emir, Seyyid İbrahim (Amir Efendi or Ku≈ak Amir, Sayyid Ebrāhim), (d. 935/1529). Famous calligrapher of Iranian origin (Mostaqim-zāda Soleymān Saʿd-al-Din Efendi, p. 46; Ṭāšköpri-zāda, p. 300; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 276).

Emir Sultan (Amir Solṭān), (d. 833/1429). Famous sufi of Iranian origin. He had a monastery (tekke) at Bursa (ML, IV, p. 376; [İA, IV, p. 206]).

Emir Şerif Muʿamma’î-i Tebrizî, [Seyyid Şerifî-i Muʿammâ’î] (Amir Šarif Moʿammāʾi Tabrizi, Sayyid Šarifi Moʿammāʾi), ([d. 927/1521]). [The author of some moʿammas in Persian]. He came from Iran to Anatolia (Sohrweide, 1970, pp. 296-97; [DAF, VI, p. 514]).

Emirî (Amiri), ([d. 10th/16th century]). He wrote a divān in Persian (İstanbul Üniversitesi Library, FY 1222; [Sobḥāni-Āqsu, p. 532]).

Emirî, Mehmed b. Musa Paşa (Amiri, Moḥammad b. Musā Pāšā). He wrote a divān in Persian (Süleymaniye Library, Fatih, no. 3780).

Emir İsmail (Amir Esmāʿil), (d. 9th/15th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Ḥāmedi, p. 317).

Emirek-i Acem-zade, Mustafa b. Molla Üveys (Amirak ʿAjam-zāda, Moṣṭafā b. Mollā Oways), (d. 10th/16th century). Iranian physician and composer. He wrote poems in Persian (Qınālı-zāda Ḥasan Čelebi, I, p. 184; [Kartal, 1999, p. 423]).

Emir Buharî, Seyyid Ahmed b. Mehmed el-Hüseynî (Amir Boḵāri, Sayyid Aḥmad b. Moḥammad al-Ḥosayni), (d. 922/1516). He was shaikh of Naqšebandiyya order. He founded a ḵāneqāh in Istanbul ([M. Kara, in DİA, XI, pp. 125-26; DAF, VI, pp. 128-29]).

Emin Mehmed-i Tokatî (Amin Moḥammad Tuqādi), (d. 1158/1745). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi (Bursalı, I, p. 36).

[Emin Mehmed-i Yenişehrî (Amin Moḥammad Yenišehri), (d. 1208/1794). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 131)].

Emin Yeminî Efendi (Amin Yamini Efendi). The translator of Neẓāmi’s Haft paykar under the title of Tarjoma-yeHaft paykar fi aḥwāl al-Solṭān Yazdjard al-Sāsāni (Bursalı, III, p. 176).

Eminî-i Semerkandî (Amini Samarqandi), (d. 10th/16th century). He came from Transoxania to Anatolia (Sohrweide, 1970, p. 279; Ḵayyāmpur, p. 64).

[Anbarcıoğlu, Meliha Ülker (Anbārjioḡlu, Maliḥa Ulker), (1923 –­). Scholar of Iranian studies. She translated Solṭān Walad’s Maʿāref (1949), Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Fih-e māfih (1955), Nāṣer Ḵosrov’s Saʿādat-nāma (1958) and Jāmi’s Enteqad-nāma (1968) into Turkish. She wrote also many books and articles on Persian literature (DAF, VI, p. 131; TDA, I, pp. 394-395)].

[Enis Dede, Receb b. Halil (Anis Dede, Rajab b. Ḵalil), (d. 1147/1734?). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-Din Rumi’s ḡazals (H. Aksoy, in DİA, XI, pp. 241-42; DAF, VI, p. 135)].

[Enis Mehmed Efendi, Gülmez-zade (Anis Moḥammad Efendi, Gulmez-zāda), (d. 1105/1693-94). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 134)].

Evhedüddin Hamid el-Kirmânî (Awḥad-al-Din Ḥamid al-Kermāni), (d. 635/1238). The author of many works and robāʿiyyāt (See Manāqeb-e Awḥad-al-Din Ḥamid al-Kermāni, [ed. Badiʿ-al-zamān Firuzānfar, Tehran, 1347/1968], editor’s introduction).

Eyyübî (Ayyubi), ([d. 928/1521]). The translator of Ferdowsi’s Ṣāh-nāma (Bursalı, III, pp. 9-10; [Y. Öz, 2002, p. 28]).

[Eyyübî-zade Mustafa b. Yusuf (Ayyubi-zāda Moṣṭafā b. Yusof), ([d. 1119/1707]). The commentator of Ebrāhim Dede Šāhedi’s Toḥfa-ye Sāhedi (A. Ljubović, in DİA, XII, pp. 33-34; DAF, VI, pp. 152-53)].

--- BBB --- [Baba Yusuf-ı Sivrihisarî, Şeyh (Bābā Yusof Sivriḥeṣāri, Šaiḵ), (d. 918/1512). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, pp. 463-64)].

Bâkî (Bāqi), (d. 1008/1600). He wrote poems in Persian ([ed. Sabahattin Küçük, Bâkî divânı, Ankara, 1994 (pp. 455-72 Persian poems)]; DK, I, pp. 189-209; [M. F. Köprülü], in İA, II, pp. 243-253; [M. Çavuşoğlu, in DİA, IV, pp. 537-540]).

Balatî-zade Kemal (Bālāti-zāda Kamāl). See Kemalî Mehmed Çelebi, Bâlâtî-zade.

Bâhir Efendi (Bāher Efendi), (d. 1159/1746). He wrote Persian poems (ML, II, p. 70).

Bayezid II (Bāyazid II, r. 1481-1512), (d. 918/1512). Ottoman Sultan. He wrote Persian poems ([İ. H. Uzunçarşılı], in İA, II, pp. 392-98; [V. J. Parry, in EI2, I, pp. 1119-21; Ş. Turan, in DİA, V, pp. 234-38]).

[Bayezid b. Süleyman, Şehzade (Bāyazid b. Solaymān the Magnificent, Šāh-zāda), (d. 969/1562). Ottoman prince. He wrote poems in Persian (Ş. Turan, in DİA, V, pp. 230-31; Kartal, 1999, p. 456)].

Buharî, Şemseddin, Şeyh ((Boḵāri, Šams-al-Din, Ṣaiḵ), (d. 8th/14th century). He brought the Naqšebandiyya sect to Anatolia (Laṭefi, Taḏkera,p. 51).

[Bahrî (Baḥri), (d. 994/1585-86). He wrote poemsin Persian(TDEA, I, p. 296)].

Bahtî Efendi (Baḵti Efendi), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Toḥfat al-afkār [dar jawāb-e daryā-ye abrār]in Persian(Bursalı, II, p. 98; [TDEA, I, p. 298]).

Bedreddin Yahya (Badr-al-Din Yaḥyā), (d. 7th/13th century). He wrote Persian poems during the Saljuq period (Aflāki, p. 79, 595; [DAF, VI, pp. 174-75]).

Bâdî Ahmed Efendi, Edirneli (Bādi Aḥmad Efendi, Edirneli, (d. 1326/1908). The author of the Maṣāder-e lesān-e Fārsi (Bursalı, III, p. 31; ML, II, p. 44; [DAF, VI, p. 155]).

Bedîʿ-i Enguriyye (Badiʿ Anguriyya), (d. 6th or 7th/12th or 13th century). He wrote works in Persian during the Saljuq period (Ateş, 1945, pp. 103-104, 106-109).

[Bereket, Hakim (Barakat, Ḥakim), (d. 7th/13th century). The author of the Toḥfa-ye mobārezi, the Ḵolāṣa and the Ṭabiʿat-nāma during the Saljuq period (DAF, VI, p. 181)].

[Berkyaruk b. Kılıç-Arslan II, Nâsıreddin (Barkyāroq b. Qele≈-Arslān II, Nāṣer-al-Din), (d. 6th/12th century). Saljuq prince. The author of the Ḥurzād o parizād during the Saljuq period (DAF, VI, p. 181)].

Birgivî, [Takiyüddin] Mehmed b. Pir Ali (Bergewi, Taqi-al-Din Moḥammad b. Pir ʿAli), (d. 981/1573). The author of the Ṣeḥḥāḥ al-ʿajamiyya (A Persian-Turkish dictionary) ([DAF, VI, pp. 182-83]).

Burhan, [Mehmed] Müfti-zade, (Borhān, Moḥammad Mofti-zāda), (d. 12th/18th century). He wrote poems in Persian ([DAF, VI, p. 183]).

Burhaneddin-i Ânevî, [Kadı Burhaneddin Ebu Nasr b. Mesud-ı Ânevi] (Borhān al-Din Ānawi, Qāżi Borhān-al-Din Abu Naṣr b. Masʿud Ānawi), (d. 7th/13th century). The author of the Anis al-qolub (562-608/1166-1212) in verse-form (for the unique manuscript see Süleymaniye Library, Aya Sofya, no. 2984; ML, II, p. 650; [Köprülü, 1943, pp. 497-521]).

Burhaneddin-i Herevî, Fakih (Borhān-al-Din Harawi, Faqih), (d. 830/1427). He came to Anatolia where he issued a fatwa to kill Badr-al-Din Simawi (TCYK, I, p. 341).

[Burhaneddin Efendi, Mehmed b. Süleyman (Borhān-al-Din Efendi, Moḥammad b. Solaymān), (d. 1348/1930). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 185)].

[Berrî Mehmed (Barri Moḥammad), (d. 1127/1715). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Bolbol-nāma under the title of Bülbüliyye (Bolboliyya) (DAF, VI, p. 186)].

Basirî-i Horasanî (Baṣiri Ḵorāsāni), (d. 941/1534-35). He wrote two divāns, one in Persian and one in Turkish ([Divān (Persian), Süleymaniye Library, Aşir Efendi, no. 292, fols. 229b-281a (autograph); divān, ed. Fikret Sarısoy, Kırıkkale, 2001]; Laṭifi, p. 10; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 278; [TDEA; I, p. 339; Kartal, 1999, pp. 415-16; F. Giese, in İA, II, p. 319; A. N. Tarlan, in EI2, I, pp. 1082-83; M. Çavuşoğlu, in DİA, V, pp. 105-106]).

Bektaş, Hacı Veli (Bekṭāš, Ḥājji Wali), (d. 669/1271). The founder of the Bektašiyye (Bektašiyye) order in Anatolia ([M. F. Köprülü], in İA, II, pp. 461-64; [A. Y. Ocak, in DİA, XIV, pp. 455-58; H. Algar, in EIr., IV, pp. 116-22]).

Beg-Temür, Kerimüddin (Beg-Temur, Karim-al-Din), (d. 693/1292). The successor (ḵalifa) of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi (Gölpınarlı, 1953, p. 31).

Bilâl-zade Mehmed Efendi (Belāl-zāda Moḥammad Efendi), (d. 914/1508). The translator of Ḡazāli’s Kimiā-ye saʿādat (Bursalı, II, p. 435).

Beliğ, Mehmed b. Emin (Beliḡ, Moḥammad b. Amin), (d. 1174/1760-61). He wrote poems in Persian ([F. A. Tansel, in İA, II, pp. 488-489; F. İz, in EI2, I, p. 1165; İ. Pala, in DİA, V, p. 417]).

[Benli-zade Mahmud Efendi (Benli-zāda Maḥmud Efendi), (d. 1140/1727-28). The translator of Daštaki Širāzi’s Rawżat al-aḥbāb fi siar al-nabi wa’l-aṣḥab (DAF, VI, p. 200)].

Benna’î-i Kazvinî (Bannā’i Qazwini), ([d. 10th/16th century]). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin (Sohrweide, 1970, p. 269).

Bahar (Behār), (d. 1228/1813). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He wrote poems in Persian and Turkish (Ergun, I, p. 656).

Baharî (Behāri), (d. 10th/16th century). The translator of Maḥmud Šabestari’s Golšan-e rāz (Ergun, I, p. 657).

Baha’î-i Tebrizî (Bahā’i Tabrizi), (d. 1344/1925). He wrote poems in Persian (Ergun, I, p. 669).

[Bahâeddin-i Şirvanî (Bahāʾ-al-Din Šervāni). The author of the Qawāʿed-e Fārsi (Damascus, 1309)].

[Bahâeddin-i Malkaravî b. Bayram (Bahāʾ-al-Din Maʿlqarawi b. Bāyrām), (d. 895/1495). The author of the Uʿjuba al-ḡarāʾeb fi naẓm al-jawāher al-ʿajāʾeb, a Persian-Arabic-Turkish dictionary in verse-form(DAF, VI, pp. 221-22)].

Behcet, Ali Musulî (Bahjat, ʿAli Mawṣeli, (d. 1221/1806). The author of the Moškelāt-e loḡat-e Waṣṣāf (Karatay, II, p. 33).

Beheştî, Ahmed Sinan Çelebi (Behešti, Aḥmad Senān Čelebi), ([d. 917/1511-12?]). The translator of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa (Ergun, I, pp. 794-802; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 268; Bursalı, II, p. 96; [Laṭifi, pp. 131-133; Sehi Beg, pp. 243-45; ʿĀšeq Čelebi, fol. 58a; Babinger, 1992, p. 49; H. Aksoy, in DİA, VI, pp. 144-145; TAD, II, p. 202]).

Beheştî, Ramazan Efendi (Behešti, Ramażān Efendi), ([d. 979/1571]). [The commentator of Jāmi’s Moʿamma-ye ṣaḡir unter the title of Šarḥ-e manẓuma-ye moʿamma.He also wrote poems in Persian] (Laṭifi, p. 104; Sehmi, p. 94; Ergun, I, p. 794; [Y. Aydemir, 1999, pp. 15-20; Kartal, 1999, p. 416; M. Uzun, in DİA, VI, pp. 145-146; TAD, II, pp. 202-203]).

Bidârî-i Dergüzinî (Bidāri Dargozini), (d. 968/1560-61). [Ottoman poet of Iranian origin]. He wrote poems in Persian (Ergun, I, p. 853; [Kartal, 1999, p. 417]).

Bayram Veli, Hacı, Nuʿman (Bayram Wali, Ḥajji, Noʿmān), (d. 833/1429). He was a disciple of Šaiḵ Ṣafi-al-Din Ardabili and the founder of the Bayramiyye sect in Anatolia (Bursalı, I, p. 56;A. Gölpınarlı, in İA, II, pp. 423-26; [V. L. Ménage, in EI2, III, p. 43]).

[Beyanî Çelebi (Beyāni Čelebi), (d. 926/1519). He incorporated Ḥāfeẓ’s divān (Laṭifi, p. 106; Ergun, I, p. 832)].

--- PPP --- Pars (Pārs). A Persian journal printed in Istanbul ([DAF, VI, p. 227]).

Pârsâ Sâbir, Mehmed Dede (Pārsā Ṣāber, Moḥammad Dede), (d. 1090/1679). The translator of Mollā Jalāl’s Gol o novruz (Bursalı, I, p. 47; [divān, ed. K. Yoldaş, 2005; TDEA, II, p. 217; Meftāḥ-Wali, pp. 256-57]).

Perviz, [Abdullah b. Abdullah-ı Hanefî] (Parviz, ʿAbd-Allāh b. ʿAbd-Allāh Ḥanafi), ([d. 987/1579]). The translator of ʿAli Quš≈i’s Resāla dar ʿilm al-hayʾa under the title of Merqāt al-samā (Uzunçarşılı, II, p. 632; [OALT, I, pp. 189-90]).

Pir Mehmed-i Balıkesirî (Pir Moḥammad Bālekesiri), (d. 11th/17th century). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi (Bursalı, I, p. 47).

Pirî Mehmed Paşa (Piri Moḥammad Pāšā), (d. 939/1532). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi [and Šāhedi’s Toḥfa-ye Šāhedi under the title of Toḥfa-ye mir] (Bursalı, II, p. 111; [Ş. Turan, in İA, IX, pp. 559-61; F. Babinger, in EI2, VIII, pp. 307-308; DAF, VI, pp. 229-31]).

--- TTT --- [Tâbî, Deraz (Tābi, Darāz), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 465)].

[Tâ’ib, Abbas (Tā’eb, ʿAbbās), (d. 1102/1690-91). He was of Iranian origin. He wrote poems in Persian and Turkish (DAF, VI, p. 233)].

Tâ’ib Ahmed Efendi, Osman-zade (Tā’eb Aḥmad Efendi, ʿOṯmān-zāda), (d. 1136/1723). The translator of the Aḵlāq-e moḥseni by Ḥosayn Wāʿeẓ Kāšefi under the title of Aḵlāq-e Aḥmadi and the Anwār-e Sohayli in a short version under the title of Zobdat al-asḥār (Bursalı, II, pp. 116-17; ML, I, p. 183; Yatvan, p. 14; [DAF, VI, pp. 595-96]).

[Tâceddin-i Halatî (Tāj-al-Din Ḵalāti), (d. 7th/13th century). He wrote robāʿis in Persian (Riāḥi, p. 72; DAF, VI, pp. 233-34)].

[Takiyüddin Ebu Bekir Mehmed b. Ebu’l-Abbas (Taqi-al-Din Abu Bakr Moḥammad b. Abu’l-ʿAbbās), (d. 993/1585). The author of the Resāla dar bayān-e osṭorlāb (OALT, I, pp. 199-217; DAF, VI, p. 255)].

Tevfik, Mehmed (Tawfiq, Moḥammad), (d. 1274/1857). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi, Jāmi’s ʿAruż and Šaiḵ Moḥammad Morād’s Qawāʿed-e Fārsiyya (Bursalı, I, p. 264; [DAF, VI, p. 257]).

[Tavakkulî Dede, Saraylı (Tawakkoli Dede, Sarāylı), (d. 11th/17th century). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, pp. 257-258)].

[Tutmacı (Tutmāji), (d. 9th/15th century). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Ḵosrov-nāma under the title of Gol o Ḵosrov (DAF, VI, p. 256)].

[Turan, Osman (Turān, ʿOṯmān), (1914-1978). Turkish scholar. He edited Aqsarāʾi’s Mosāmarat al-aḵbār wa mosāyarat al-aḵyār (Ankara, 1944), and the Taqārir al-manāṣeb (Ankara, 1958) (DAF, VI, p. 256)].

--- Ṯ Ṯ Ṯ --- Sâkıb, Mustafa Dede (Ṯāqeb, Moṣṭafā Dede), (d. 1148/1735). The author of the Safina-ye nafisa-ye Mawlawiyya on the Mawlawiyya order ([Safina-ye nafisa-ye Mawlawiyya, Meṣr, 1263, 12832]; Bursalı, I, p. 50).

Senâ’î, Halil el-Mevlevî (Ṯanāʾi, Ḵalil al-Mawlawi, (d. 950/1543). The translator of ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb Hamadāni’s Ṯawāqeb al-manāqeb (TCYK, I, p. 518).

--- JJJ --- [Câbî-zade Ebu’l-Fazl Halil b. İsa (Jābi-zāda Abu’l-Fażl Ḵalil b. ʿIsā), (d. 1134/1721-22). The author of the Maqālāt al-sayyārāt in Persian and the Taqwim-e 1127-1128 in Persian-Turkish (OALT, I, p. 518; DAF, VI, pp. 265-266)].

Câmiʿü’l-Furs (Jāmiʿ al-Fors). An anonymous Persian dictionary. There are many manuscripts to be found in the libraries of Istanbul and Anatolia (Uzunçarşılı, II, p. 693; [DAF, VI, p. 267]).

Câmî-i Rumî, [Ahmed] (Jāmi Rumi, Aḥmed), (d. 10th/16th century). The translator of Ḥosayn Wāʿeẓ Kāšefi’s Rawżat al-šohadā’ under the title of Saʿādat-nāma for Sultan Süleyman (Solaymān) the Magnificent (1520-1566) (Ergun, II, pp. 900-902; TCYK, I, p. 455; TEA, I, p. 451; [Laṭifi, pp. 141-142; Qınālı-zāde Ḥasan Čelebi, I, p. 245; Storey/Monzawi, II, p. 909; M. Uzun, in DİA, VII, pp. 102-103]).

[Cüdâ’î (Jodāʾi), (d. 967/1567). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 420)].

Cafer Çelebi, Tâcî-zade (Jaʿfar Čelebi, Tāji-zāda), ([d. 921/1515]). The author of the monša’āt in Persian and the translator of [Qāsem Anwār]’s Anis al-ʿārefin. [He also wrote poems in Persian] (Manāqeb-e honarvarān, p. 62; Ergun, I, p. 882; [Divān, ed. İ. Erünsal, 1983; M. T. Gökbilgin,in İA, III, pp. 8-10; İ. Erünsal, in DİA, XVII, pp. 277-278]).

[Cafer Dede (Jaʿfar Dede), (d. 936/1529-30). He wrote ḡazals in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 391)].

[Cafer Tayyar b. Ahmed Sâlim (Jaʿfar Ṭayyār b. Aḥmad Sālem), (d. 14th/20th century). The translator and commentator of the Zobda-ye Golestān (Istanbul, 1301-1302)].

[Celâleddin-i Verekânî (Jalāl-al-Din Varakāni), (d. 7th/13th century). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He wrote poems in Persian (Riāḥi, p. 69; DAF, VI, pp. 275)].

Celâl-zade Sâlih Efendi (Jalāl-zāde Ṣāleḥ Efendi), ([d. 973/1565]). The translator of the Manāqeb-e Bahmanšāh b. Firuzšāh [or Qeṣṣa-ye Firuzšāh] and Jawāmiʿ al-ḥekāyāt by ʿAwfi [(for the translator’s manuscript see Antalya Tekelioğlu Library, no. 4000, in 964/1556-57 written in Eyüb. See TÜYATOK, 07/V, p. 267)]. (Toḥfa-ye ḵaṭṭaṭin, p. 229; Bursalı, II, p. 278; Uzunçarşılı, II, p. 633; M. T. Gökbilgin, in İA, III, pp. 63-64; [T. Yazıcı, in DİA, VII, p. 439-40; J. R. Walsh, in EI2, II, pp. 400-401; DİA, VII, pp. 262-64]).

Celâl-zade Koca-Nişancı Mustafa (Jalāl-zāda Qujā-Nešānji Moṣṭafā), ([d. 975/1567]). [The author of the Ṭabaqāt al-mamālek fi darajāt al-masālek and] the translator of Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma and Mollā Meskin’s Maʿārej al-nobuwwa fi madārej al-fotuwwa (TCYK, I, p. 403; Bursalı, III, pp. 37-39; [M. T. Gökbilgin], in İA, III, pp. 61-63; [; V. L. Ménage, EI2, p. 400; C. J. Kerslake, in DİA, VII, pp. 260-262]).

Celilî [-i İznikî] (Jalili Ezniqi), ([d. 9th/15th century]). The translator of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa in verse-form ([Bursalı, II, p. 124]; Ergun, III, p. 955; [M. Mansuroğlu], in İA, III, p. 66).

Celilî, Hâmidî-zade (Jalili, Ḥāmedi-zāda), ([d. 977/1569]). The translator of Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma. [He also wrote poems in Persian] ([Divān, Bibliothèque Nationale, Supp Turc, no. 364]; Bursalı, II, p. 125; Ergun, II, p. 948; [TDEA, II, pp. 31-32; M. Mansuroğlu, in İA, III, p. 66; Hasan Aksoy, in DİA, VII, pp. 269-270; DAF, VI, pp. 278-279]).

Cem Sultan b. [Sultan Mehmed II], Şehzade (Jem Solṭān b. Sultan Moḥammad II, Šāh-zāda), (d. 900/1495). Ottoman prince. He wrote two divāns, one in Persian and one in Turkish and translated Salmān Sawaji’s Jemšid o Ḵuršid ([Divān (in Persian), ed. ʿA. N. Tuqmaq, Tehran, 1380/2001; Divān (in Turkish), ed. H. Ersoylu, Ankara, 1981, 19892; Jemšid o Ḵuršid, ed. İ. M. Okur Meriç, Ankara, 1997; ed. A. İnce, Ankara, 2000; ʿĀšeq Čelebi, fols. 67a-68a; Gelibolulu Moṣṭafā ʿĀli, 1994, p. 151; Laṭifi, pp. 73-75; Moṣṭafā b. Jar-Allāh Bayāni, pp. 8-9; Ḥasan Čelebi, I, pp. 112-115. Sehi Beg, pp. 99-102; M. C. Baysun, 1946, pp. 13-69, 71-97; Idem, in İA, III, 1964, pp. 69-81; İ. H. Ertaylan, 1951, pp. 12-91, 111-137; Babinger, 1959, pp. 184, 330-37, 445-46, 466; M. Okur, 1992, pp. 54-55, 61, 219-22; H. İnalcık, in EI2, II, pp. 529-31; G. Kut and M. H. Şakiroğlu, in DİA, VII, pp. 283-86]).

[Cemalî, Bayezid b. Mustafa b. Ahmed-i Tercümanî el-Akşehrî (Jemāli, Bāyazid b. Moṣṭafā b. Šaiḵ Aḥmad Tarjumāni al-Āqšahri), (d. 9th/15th century). Ottoman poet. He wrote poems in Persian and the Homā o Homāyun (Golšan-e ʿUššāq), for which Ḵʷāju Kermāni’s Homā o Homāyun was a model (Divān, ed. Nihal Nomer Karaman, Istanbul, 2002; ed. İ. Çetin Derdiyok, Adana, 1988; Idem, Harvard University, 1994; Homā o Homāyun (Golšan-e ʿUššāq) ed. Osman Horata, Ankara, 1990; ʿĀšeq Čelebi, fols. 20a, 354a; Gelibolulu Moṣṭafā ʿĀli, 1994, p. 123; Laṭifi, ed. Mustafa İsen, p. 121; Ḥasan Čelebi, I, pp. 260-261; Sehi Beg, pp. 55, 107-108, 113; Bursalı, II, p. 122; Faruk Kadri Demirtaş [Timurtaş], 1951, pp. 189-213; Osman Horata, 1991, pp. 51-83; Idem, 1993, pp. 281-306; Idem, 2000, pp. 121-35; Osman Yıldız, 1996, pp. 271-92; G. Kut, DİA, VII, pp. 316-17)].

[Cemalî b. Hasan-ı Şusterî (Jemāli b. Ḥasan-ı Šostari), (d. after 994/1586). The author of the Fotuḥ al-ajam (Fotuḥāt-e ʿajam) (DAF, VI, pp. 634-635)].

[Cemaleddin-i Aksarayî, Şeyh (Jemāl-al-Din Āqsarāʾi, Šaiḵ), (d. 791/1388). He wrote poems in Persian, Turkish and Arabic (Bursalı, I, p. 265; Kartal, 1999, p. 385)].

Cenabî Ahmed Paşa (Jenābi Aḥmed Pāšā), (d. 969/1561). He wrote poems in Persian and Turkish (TEA, I, p. 279; DK, I, p. 144; [Divān, ed. Selim Cihan, 1996; ed. Beyhan Kesik, 1996; Kartal, 1999, p. 419]).

Cenabî Mustafa Efendi, [Mir Ebu Mehmed b. Hasan b. Sinan] (Jenābi Moṣṭafā Efendi, Mir Abu Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. Senān), (d. 999/1590). He wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, III, p. 39; TCYK, I, p. 80; [İA, III, p. 100; M. Canatar,in DİA, VII, pp. 352-53]).

Cinanî Mustafa Çelebi (Jenāni Moṣṭafā Čelebi), (d. 1004/1595). He wrote poems in Persian ([divān, ed. Cihan Okuyucu, Cinânî, hayatı, eserleri ve divânının tenkidli metni, Ankara, 1994]; Bursalı, II, p. 125; Kartal, 1999, p. 420; [C. Okuyucu, in DİA, V, pp. 296-97]).

[Cünûnî Ahmed Dede (Jonuni Aḥmad Dede), (d. 1030/1621). He wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, II, pp. 52-53; M. Kara, in DİA, VIII, p. 130)].

Cevdet Ahmed Paşa (Jewdet Aḥmad Pāšā), (d. 1312/1895). The commentator of the second part of Ṣā’eb Tabrizi’s divān under the title of Šerḵ-i divān-i Ṣā’eb tetimmesi (Bursalı, II, p. 129; [Šerḵ-i divān-i Ṣā’eb tetimmesi, Bayezid Devlet Library, Veliyüddin Efendi, no. 3302, folls. 596b-627b; Fatma Āliyye, 1332; M. Ş. Ülkütaşır, 1945; M. Cavid Baysun, 1954, pp. 213-230; Ü. Meriç, 1975; Ahmed Cevdet Paşa Semineri, Istanbul, 1986; C. K. Neumann, 1992; A. Z. İzgöer, 1999; Â. Ölmezoğlu, in İA, III, 1945, pp. 114-23; H. Bowen, in EI2, I, pp. 284-86; Y. Halaçoğlu-M. A. Aydın, in DİA, VII, pp. 443-50]).

Cevdet, Muallim (Jewdet, Moʿallem). [See Muallim Cevdet].

Cevdet, Abdullah (Jewdet, ʿAbd-Allāh). See Abdullah Cevdet.

Cevrî, İbrahim Çelebi (Jewri, Ebrāhim Čelebi), (d. 1065/1655). The author of the Tarjuma-ye ḥāl-e Ḥāfeẓ-e Širāzi, and the commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi [under the title of Ḥall-e taḥqiqāt] and the translator of Yusof Sinečāk Dede’s Jazira-ye Maṯnawi [under the title of ʿAyn al-foyuż] (Bursalı, II, pp. 126-128; Ergun, III, p. 1064; [Karabulut, p. 62 n. 57; Karatay, Türkçe, II, p. 153 no. 2417; Divān, ed. Hüseyin Ayan, Erzurum, 1981; H. Ayan, in DİA, XXIV, pp. 460-61]).

Cevrî, Ahıskalı (Jewri, Āḵıṣqālı), ([d. 1292/1875]). [Ottoman poet and translator]. He translated about 5000 couplets from Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma into Turkish in verse-form (Ergun, III, pp. 1049-50; [TDEA, II, p. 58; A. B. Alptekin, in TDE, II, p. 456]).

---ČČČ--- [Çâkerî (Čākeri), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Solaymān-nāma (İstanbul Üniversitesi Library, FY, no. 951; Sobhāni-Aqsu, Fehrest, pp. 417-18)].

Çâkerî (Čākeri), (d. 1274/1858). He wrote poems in Persian (Ergun, III, p. 980; [TDEA, II, p. 110]).

Çâkerî Sinan Bey (Čākeri Senān Bey), (d. 920/1514). He wrote naẓiras on Ẓahir Fāryābi’s many poems ([divān, ed. G. Çavdurel, 1996; Bursalı, II, p. 134]; Ergun, II, p. 1105).

Çamçak Mehmed Efendi (Čam≈ak Moḥammad Efendi). See Mehmed Efendi, Çamçak.

Çevgânî (Čevgāni), (d. 10th/16th century). The translator of Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma (Ergun, III, p. 1112).

---ḤḤḤ--- Hâcibî, Karslu (Ḥājebi, Qarṣlu), (d. 12th/18th century). Ottoman poet and translator. He translated the Jehān-gošā-ye Nāderi and added a supplament about the period after Nāderšāh (TCYK, I, p. 314).

Hacı Ahmed Paşa (Ḥājji Aḥmad Pāšā). The author of the Sefāret-nāma-ye İrān (Unat, p. 86).

[Hacı Paşa, Celâleddin Hızır b. Ali (Ḥājji Pāšā, Jalāl-al-Din Ḵeżr b. ʿAli), (d. 827/1424[?]). The author of the al-Farida fi ḏekr al-aḡḏiya al-mofida in Persian (Bursalı, III, pp. 211-213; [T. H., in İA, V/1, pp. 28-30; J. Walsh, in EI2, III, p. 45; C. Akpınar, in DİA, XIV, pp. 492-96)].

[Hacı Çelebi, Mehmed b. İsmet b. İbrahim b. Hasan (Ḥājji Čelebi, Moḥammad b. ʿEṣmat b. Ebrāhim b. Ḥasan), (d. 1160/1747). The author of the Taqwim-e sāl-e 1144-1145 (OALT, I, pp. 426-427)].

[Hâfız, Seyyid Abdullah b. Halil (Ḥāfeẓ, Sayyid ʿAbd-Allāh b. Ḵalil), (d. 1198/1783-84). The author of the Toḥfat al-Ḥāfeẓ (Bursalı, II, p. 145; DAF, VI, p. 299)].

Hâfız-ı Acem, Hâfızüddin Mehmed b. Ahmed b. Adil Çelebi (Ḥāfeẓ ʿAjam, Ḥāfeẓ-al-Din Moḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿĀdel Èelebi), (d. 957/1550). The translator of Šaraf-al-Din Yazdi’s Timur-nāma [(Ẓafar-nāma)] (Ḥasan Čelebi, I, p. 276; al-Šaqā’eq al-noʿmāniyya, p. 451; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 268; [T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XI, p. 509-10; Kartal, 1999, pp. 429-30]).

Hâmidî [-i Isfahânî] (Ḥāmedi Eṣfahāni), ([d. 884/1479-80]). [Ottoman poet of Iranian origin]. He wrote a divān in Persian ([Kolleyāt-e divān-e Mawlānā Ḥāmedi, faks. ed. İsmail Hikmet Ertaylan, Istanbul, 1949; Riāḥi, pp. 150-55; Kartal, 1999, pp. 396-97; A. Karahan, in EI2, III, pp. 133-34; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XI, p. 641; İ. Ünver, in DİA, XV, pp. 461-62; DAF, VI, pp. 311-12]).

Hâmî-i Amidî, Ahmed b. Abdullah (Ḥāmi Āmedi, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh), ([d. 1160/1747]). He wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, II, p. 139; [A. Karahan, EI2, III, p. 133; A. Karahan, in DİA, XV, p. 458; DAF, VI, p. 312]).

[Hamîd-i Engurî (Ḥamid Anguri), (d. 9th/14th century). The author of the Selk al-jawāher, an Arabic-Persian dictionary (İstanbul Üniversitesi Library, FY 575; Ateş, 1968, p. 263; Kartal, 1999, p. 382)].

Habib Efendi (Ḥabib Efendi). See Mirza Habib-i Isfahânî.

Hubeyş b. İbrahim b. [Muhammed] el-Tiflisî, [Ebu’l-Fazl] (Ḥobayš b. Ebrāhim b. Moḥammad al-Teflisi, Abu’l-Fażl), (d. 629/1231). The author of the Ketāb wojuh al-Qorān [for autograph see Atıf Efendi Library, muvakkat, no. 3246], the Kāmel al-taʿbir, the Qānun al-adab and the Kefāyat-e ṭebb (Ateş, 1945, pp. 97-101; [T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XII, p. 415-16; Ketāb wojuh al-Qor’ān, ed. Mehdi Moḥaqqeq, Tehran, 1992; Ateş, 1955, pp. 23-25]).

[Harirî b. Mehmed (Ḥariri b. Moḥammad), (d. 10th/15th century). The translator of Yusof b. Neẓām-al-Din al-Qeršehri’s Resāla-ye musiqiyya (MLT, p. 3)].

[Hazinî, Sultan Ahmed b. Mevlânâ Mahmud (Ḥazini, Solṭān Aḥmad b. Mawlānā Maḥmud), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 433)].

Hüsam Efendi, Mesnevî-hân (Ḥosām Efendi, Maṯnawi-ḵʷān), (d. 1280/1863). The commentator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi and the translator of Emām Termeḏi’s Šamā’el (Bursalı, I, p. 67).

[Hüsam b. Şemseddin el-Hattâbî el-Lâhicânî el-Gilânî, Dellakoğlu (Ḥosām b. Šams-al-Din al-Ḵattābi al-Lāhejāni al-Gilāni, Dellākoḡlu), (d. 901/1495-96). Ottoman scholar of Iranian origin. He wrote many works in Persian (Riāḥi, p. 212; OALT, I, pp. 63-64; DAF, VI, pp. 328-329)].

Hüsameddin [b. Şâhidî, İbrahim Dede] (Ḥosām-al-Din b. Šāhedi, Ebrāhim Dede), ([d. 10th/16th century]). The author of the Qawāʿed-e Fārsi (Bursalı, I, p. 94).

Hüsameddin Ali el-Bitlisî (Ḥosām-al-Din ʿAli al-Beṭlisi), ([d. 900/1494-95]). The commentator of Maḥmud Šabestari’s Golšan-e rāz and ʿAbd-al-Razzāq Kāṣāni’s Eṣṭelāḥāt-e ṣufiyya (Bursalı, I, p. 58).

Hasan b. Hüseyin İmad el-Karahisarî (Ḥasan b. Ḥosayn ʿEmād al-Qaraḥeṣāri), (d. 947/1540). The author of the Šāmel al-loḡa, [a small Arabic-Persian-Turkish-Mongolian dictionary] (Bursalı, I, p. 273; Uzunçarşılı, II, p. 630; [Šāmel al-loḡa, ed. Mustafa S. Kaçalin, 1997; DAF, VI, pp. 494-495]).

Hasan Rıza’î Efendi (Ḥasan Reżāʾi Efendi), (d. 11th/17th century). The translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān in verse-form (Bursalı, I, p. 62; [TDEA, VII, pp. 329-330]).

Hasan b. Abdü’l-Mü’min Hüsâmeddin-i Hoyî (Ḥasan b. ʿAbd-al-Mo’men Ḥosām-al-Din Ḵoʾi), ([d. 709/1309]). The author of the Ḡonyat al-kāteb wa monyat al-ṭāleb, [the Nozhat al-kottāb wa toḥfat al-aḥbāb, the Resāla-ye Qawāʿed al-raṣā’el wa farā’ed al- fażā’el, the Rosum al-rasā’el wa nojum al-fażā’el and the Naṣib al-fetyān wa tašbib al-bayān, a Persian-Arabic dictionary, the Toḥfa-ye Ḥosām (Hosāmi), the oldest Persian-Turkish dictionary in Anatolia] (Ḡonyat al-kāteb wa monyat al-ṭāleb, ed. Adnan Sadık Erzi, Ankara, 1962; [Majmuʿa-ye āṯār-e Ḥosām-al-Din Ḵoʾi, ed. Ṣaḡrā ʿAbbās-zāda, Tehran, 1379/2000; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XII, p. 26]).

[Hasan b. Hüseyin et-Tâyşî (Ḥasan b. Ḥosayn al-Ṭāiši), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Tāriḵ-e ʿālam. He was of Iranian origin (For autograph see Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Ms. Orient. Oct. 1031; VOHD, XIV/1, pp. 139-40 no. 168)].

[Hasan Zarifî Efendi (Ḥasan Żarifi Efendi), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 431)].

[Hasan-ı Fenarî b. Mehmed-şah, Bedreddin (Ḥasan Fanāri b. Moḥammad-šāh, Badr-al-Din), (d. 891/1486). The author of the al-Maṭāleb al-ʿāliyya in Persian (C. Akpınar, in DİA, XVI, pp. 313-315; DAF, VI, pp. 329-330)].

[Hasibî Hüseyin b. Rüstem Paşa (Ḥasibi Ḥosayn b. Rostam Pāṣā), (d. 1023/1614-15). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 332)].

Hüseyin Aynî (Ḥosayn ʿAyni). See Aynî Hüseyin Efendi Ayıntâbî.

Hüseyin-i Bâverdî, [Seyyid] (Ḥosayn Bāverdi, Sayyid), ([d. 10th/16th century]). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin (from Ābivard) (Sohrweide, 1970, p. 271).

Hüseyin Daniş Pedrâm [b. Mehmed Haşim] (Ḥosayn Dāneš Pedrām b. Moḥammad Hāšem), ([1286/1870-1362/1943]). Ottoman composer of Iranian origin. His family came from Eṣfahān to Istanbul. He was professor for Persian literature at the Faculty for Literature at the University of Istanbul. He composed the Taʿlim-e lesān-e Fārsi and many other books on Persian language and literature. He translated ʿOmar Ḵayyām’s Robāʿiyyāt ([P. J. Chelkowski, in EIr., VI, p. 649; DAF, VI, pp. 373-375]).

[Hüseyin Rıza Paşa (Ḥosayn Reżā Pāšā), (d. 1322/1904). The author of the Hamyān-e bayān and the Majmuʿa-ye del-paḏir in Persian (Bursalı, II, p. 212; DAF, VI, p. 333)].

[Hüseyin Fahreddin Dede b. Hüseyin Nazif Dede (Ḥosayn Faḵr-al-Din Dede b. Ḥosayn Naẓif Dede), (d. 1329/1911). The translator of the Resāla-ye sepehsālār in verse-form. He also wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, I, p. 180; N. Özcan, in DİA, XVIII, pp. 546-47; DAF, VI, pp. 333-34)].

[Hüseyin b. Hasan el-Konevî (Ḥosayn b. Ḥasan al-Qunawi), (d. after 833/1429). The author of the Rawżat al-monajjemin (Bursalı, III, p. 260; OALT, I, p. 5; DAF, VI, p. 334)].

[Hüseyin Kâşif, Gulam (Ḥosayn Kāšef, Ḡolām). The author of the Dastur-e zabān-e Fārsi (Istanbul, 1328)].

Hüseyin-i Kefevî (Ḥosayn Kafawi), (d. 1010/1601). The commentator of Saʿdi’s Golestān and Ḥāfeẓ’s divān (Bursalı, I, p. 276; [DAF, VI, pp. 334-35, 404]).

Hüseyin Murtaza (Ḥosayn Morteżā). See Nazmi-zade Hüseyin Murtaza Efendi, Bağdadlı.

[Haşmet, Mehmed b. Ebu’l-Hayr Abbas Efendi (Ḥašmat, Moḥammad b. Abu’l-Ḵair ʿAbbās Efendi), (d. 1182/1768-69). He wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, I, pp. 141-42; M. Kaplan, in İA, V, pp. 354-55; in M. Orhan, Okay, in DİA, XVI, pp. 422-24; DAF, VI, p. 335)].

Hisarî-zade Mehmed Elif Efendi (Ḥeṣāri-zāda Moḥammad Elef Efendi), (d. 1346/1927). Shaikh of Mawlawiyya order. He wrote poems in Persian (ML, V, p. 902).

Hikmet, Seyyid Ahmed Ârif (Ḥekmat, Sayyid Aḥmad ʿĀref). See Ârif Hikmet.

[Hakimî-i Kazvinî (Ḥakimi Qazwini), (d. 10th/16th century). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He wrote poems in Persian (Ḥasan Čelebi, I, pp. 297-299; DAF, VI, p. 342)].

Hulvî, Cemâleddin Mahmud (Ḥolwi, Jem2al-al-Din Maḥmud), (d. 1064/1654). The author of the Lamaẓāt-e ḥolviya az lamaʿāt-e ʿolwiya containing the biography of the shaikhs of the Ḵalwati order. He also translated Lāhiji’s Šarḥ-e golšan-e rāz [under the title of Jām-e del-navāz] (Bursalı, I, p. 61; TCYK, I, p. 479; [Lamaẓāt-e holwiya, Tur. Tr. Mehmet Serhan Tayşi, Istanbul, 1993; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XII, pp. 430-31]).

[Hilmî (Ḥelmi), (d. 11th/17th century). The translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān under the title of Baḥr al-kamāl (ed. Cihan Okuyucu, Hilmî, Bahru’l-Kemâl, Kayseri, 1995)].

Halimî, [Kadı Lütfullah b. Ebu Yusuf] (Ḥalimi, Qāżi Loṭf-Allāh b. Abu Yusof), ([d. 922/1516]). Poet and lexicographer of Iranian origin. He wrote the Baḥr al-ḡarā’eb [(Loḡat-e Ḥalimi)], a Persian-Turkish dictionary, [the Qā’ema, the Golšan-e zibā and the Neṯār al-molk](Bursalı, I, p. 273; [DAF, VI, pp. 173-174, 344-345, 657-658; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XI, p. 588-89]).

Halimî Çelebi, [Abdü’l-Halim b. Ali] (Ḥalimi Čelebi, ʿAbd-al-Ḥalim b. ʿAli), ([d. 922/1516]). He was from Kastamonu (Qasṭamuni), went to Iran and again came back to Anatolia. He was a member of the Zayniyya sect (ʿšık Čelebi, p. 89; Šaqā’eq, p. 382; Sohrweide, 1965, p. 143; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 289; [A. Abdülkadiroğlu, in DİA, XV, pp. 343-344; DAF, VI, p. 345]).

[Halimî-i Amasyevî (Ḥalimi Amāsyawi), (d. 9th/15th century). The author of the Eḥsān al-marḡub in 866/1461 (Kartal, 1999, p. 395)].

[Hamdî-i Berdiʿî, Şemseddin (Ḥamdi Bardiʿi, Šams-al-Din), (d. 10th/16th century). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He wrote poems in Persian (Riāḥi, pp. 173-74; DAF, VI, p. 337)].

Hamdullah [Hamdî] Çelebi, [Mehmed b. Akşemseddin] (Ḥamd-Allāh Ḥamdi Čelebi, Moḥammed b. Aq-šams-al-Din), ([d. 909/1503]). He wrote a naẓira on theYusof o Zaliḵa of Jāmi. He corresponded with Jāmi (Bursalı, III, p. 136; [Yusof o Zaliḵa, ed. Naci Onur, Ankara, 1991; Kartal, 1999, pp. 395-396; Zehra Öztürk, in DİA, XV, pp. 452-454; DAF, VI, pp. 6-7]).

Hamdullah Şeyh (Ḥamd-Allāh Šaiḵ), (d. 926/1520). Famous calligrapher of Iranian origin (Ekrem Hakkı Ayverdi, Hattatlar, pp. 25-38;Sohrweide, 1970, p. 275).

[Hamza b. Hacı Süleyman (Ḥamza b. Ḥājji Solaymān), (d. 9th/15th century). The translator of Sayyid Šarif’s al-Molaḵḵaṣ fi ʿilm al-hay’a from Arabic into Persian (OALT, I, pp. 56-57)].

Hamza Nigârî Efendi (Ḥamza Negāri Efendi), (d. 1304/1886). He wrote two divāns, one in Persian and one in Turkish (Bursalı, I, p. 65; T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XI, p. 648-49).

Hanif İbrahim Efendi (Ḥanif Ebrāhim Efendi), (d. 1217/1802). The author of the Eḵteṣār-e loḡat-e Waṣṣāf (Bursalı, I, p. 281).

Hayatî, [Abdü’l-Hayy] (Ḥayāti, ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy), (d. 9th/15th century). The translator of Neẓāmi’s Haft paykar (TEA, III, p. 633; Âgâh Sırrı Levend, “Hayatî’nin İskender-nâmesi,” Türk Dili 1, 1951, pp. 195-201; [T. Yazıcı, in EIr., XII, p. 68]).

[Hayatî, Abdü’l-Kerim b. Sinan (Ḥayāti, ʿAbd-al-Karim b. Senān), (d. 9th/15th century). The author of the Taqwim wa aḥkām-e sāl-e 900 and the Taqwim wa aḥkām-e sāl-e 902 (OALT, I, p. 61)].

Hayatî [-i Elbistanî], Leccâcî Ahmed [b. Ahmed] (Ḥayāti Albestāni, Lejjāji Aḥmad b. Aḥmad), ([d. 1229/1814]). The commentator of the Toḥfa-ye Wahbi [by Sünbül-zâde (Sonbol-zāda)], a Persian-Turkish dictionary in verse-form (ML, V, p. 721; [C. Akpınar, in DİA, XVII, pp. 14-16; DAF, VI, p. 348]).

[Hayret Mehmed Efendi, Hayret-i Sivasî (Ḥeyrat Moḥammad Efendi, Ḥeyrat-i Sivasi), (d. 13th/19th century). The author of the Amṯala and the Seh Zabān, a Persian dictionary in verse-form (Bursalı, I, p. 144;DAF, VI, pp. 348-349)].

[Hayrî (Ḥayri). The translator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi (Istanbul, 1318)].

---ḴḴḴ--- [Hâtemî İbrahim Bey b. Divane Mahmud Çelebi (Ḵātami Ebrāhim Bey b. Divāna Maḥmud Čelebi), (d. 1004/1595). He wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, II, p. 163; Kartal, 1999, pp. 431-32; DAF, VI, pp. 351-52)].

[Hâkî, Mustafa (Ḵāki Moṣṭafā), (d. 11th/17th century). The author of the Nāẓem al-jawāher and the Manāẓem al-jawāher, Persian-Arabic-Turkish dictionaries in verse-form(Bursalı, II, p. 166; DAF, VI, p. 352, 822)].

[Hâkî, Molla Ahmed (Ḵāki, Mollā Aḥmad), (d. 14th/20th century). He wrote poems in Persian (divān, ed. Šaiḵ Moḥammad Ḵāl, Bagdad, 1400; DAF, VI, pp. 352-53)].

[Hâlî (Ḵāli), (d. 10th/16th century). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 430)].

[Hâlî, Ahmed Efendi (Ḵāli, Aḥmad Efendi), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 430)].

Hâlis İbrahim Efendi. See İbrahim Hâlis Efendi.

Hâlis Abdu’r-Rahman Ahmed-i Kerkükî (Ḵāleṣ ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Aḥmad Kerkuki), (d. 1249/1834). He wrote a divān in Persian.

[Hâver (Ḵāvar). A Persian journal printed in Istanbul (DAF, VI, p. 355)].

Hâverî (Ḵāvari), (d. 10th/16th century). [Ottoman poet of Iranian origin]. He was from Solṭāniyya. He came with Salim I (1512-1520) to Anatolia (Sohrweide, 1970, p. 273).

Hezâ’î-i Semerkandî (Ḵazāʾi Samarqandi), (d. 928/1522). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin (Ḵayyāmpur, p. 189; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 273).

Hüsrev Mehmed-i Sivasî, Molla Hüsrev (Ḵosrov Moḥammad Sivāsi, Mollā Ḵosrov), ([d. 885/1480]). The translator of Ḵʷāja Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi’s Asās al-eqtebās from Persian into Arabic (Bursalı, I, p. 293; [DAF, VI, pp. 820-821]).

Hisâlî (Ḵeṣāli), (d. 1062/1651). The author of the Laṭā’ef-e ḵeyāl (Bursalı, II, p. 165; ML, V, p. 902; [DAF, VI, p. 724]).

[Hızır-ı Erzincanî, b. Muslihuddin Mustafa (Ḵeżr Arzenjāni, Moṣleḥ-al-Din Moṣṭafā), (d. 10th/16th century). The commentator of Jāmi’s Bahārestān (Riāḥi, p. 218; DAF, VI, p. 358)].

Hızır Bey [b. Celâleddin b. Sadruddin] (Ḵeżr Bey Jalâl-al-Din b. Ṣadr-al-Din), (d. 863/1458). [The author of the Toḥfa-ye Solṭān Morād Ḵān] (TEA, II, p. 633; [Bursalı, I, pp. 290-291; J. R. Walsh, in EI2, V, pp. 4-5; M. S. Yazıcıoğlu, in DİA, XVII, pp. 413-415]).

[Hızrî, Hızır Bey b. Aḥmed (Ḵeżri, Ḵeżr Bey b. Aḥmad), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 434)].

[Hızırşah b. Abdü’l-Latif-i Menteşevî (Ḵeżr-šāh b. ʿAbd-al-Laṭif Mentešewi), (d. 853/1449). The commentator of Naṣer-al-Din Tuṣi’s Si faṣl under the title of Moḵtaṣar dar maʿrefat-e taqwim in Persian (OALT, I, p. 25; DAF, VI, p. 359)].

Hatib Rüstem [Dede, Mevlevî] (Ḵaṭib Rostam Dede, Mawlawi), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Wasila al-maqāṣed elā aḥsan al-marāṣed, a Turkish-Persian dictionary, [the Farhang-e Fārsi ba Turki and the Qawāʿed-e zabān-e Fārsi] (Bursalı, II, p. 261; [Riāḥi, p. 214; DAF, VI, pp. 413-14]).

[Hulusî (Ḵoluṣi). The translator of Ṣā’eb’s poems under the title of Mücevherāt-ı Ṣāʾib-i Tebr^z^ (Mojawharāt-e Ṣā’eb-e Tabrizi) (Istanbul, 1331).

[Halife-i Diyarbekrî (Ḵalifa Diyārbakri), (d. 979/1572). Ottoman poet of Iraian origin. He was from Tabriz. He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 431; DAF, VI, pp. 361-62)].

[Halilî, Derviş (Ḵalili, Derviš), (d. 890/1485). The author of the Toḥfat al-ʿuššāq (F. A. Tansel, in İA, V/1, pp. 162-64; A. Karahan, in EI2, IV, p. 972; M. Özkan-M. İsen, in DİA, XV, pp. 329-30; DAF, VI, pp. 240, 362-63)].

Hâce Mesud [b. Ahmed], Şeyh (Ḵʷāja Mesʿud b. Aḥmad, Šaiḵ), (d. 8th/14th century). The translator of [the Sohayl o nov-bahār and] the Farhang-nāma-ye Saʿdi (ed. Kilisli Rıfat-Veled Çelebi İzbudak, Istanbul, 1341/1924; [Sohayl o nov-bahār, fax. ed. J. H. Mordtmann, Suheil und Nevbehar, Hannover, 1925; M. Erkal-M. Özkan, in DİA, XVIII, pp. 189-91]).

[Hayalî, Abdü’l-Kerim-zade Mehmed Efendi (Ḵeyāli, ʿAbd-al-Karim-zāda Moḥammad Efendi), (d. 975/1567-68). He wrote poems in Persian (DK, I, p. 1530; Kartal, 1999, p. 432)].

Hayalî-i Gülşenî, Şeyh Emir Ahmed (Ḵeyāli Golšeni, Šaiḵ Amir Aḥmad), (d. 977/1569-70). He wrote poems in Persian (DK, I, p. 1530; Kartal, 1999, p. 432).

Hayrî Bey [Süleyman b. Abdü’l-Kadir] (Ḵayri Bey, Solaymān b. ʿAbd-al-Qāder), (d. 1308/1891). The author of the Lawḥa-ye qawāʿed-e Fārsiyya [Istanbul, 1866], the Seh zabān, the Ḵayr al-loḡāt, [and the translator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi (Istanbul, 1888)] (Bursalı, II, p. 169; TEA, II, p. 624; [DAF, VI, p. 368]).

--- DDD --- Dâʿî, Ahmed (Dāʿi, Aḥmad). See Ahmed-i Dâʿî.

[Dâʿî, Şemseddîn (Dāʿi, Šams-al-Din), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 421)].

Daniş, Ahmed (Dāneš, Aḥmad). See Ahmed Daniş.

Daniş Pedrâm, Hüseyin (Dāneš Padrām, Ḥosayn). See Hüseyin Daniş Pedrâm.

[Davud-şah-ı Mengücekî, Alâeddin Davud-şah b. Fahreddin Behram-şah (Dāwud Mangojaki, ʿAlā’-al-Din Dāwud-šāh b. Faḵr-al-Din Behrām-šāh), (d. 7th/13th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Riāḥi, pp. 30-31; DAF, VI, p. 376)].

Davud-ı Kayserî, Şerefeddin (Dāwud Qayṣari, Šaraf-al-Din), (d. 751/1350). The commentator of ʿAbd-Allāh Anṣāri’s Manāzel-e sā’erin (Bursalı, III, p. 68; Brockelmann, GAL, Supp., II, p. 323; [M. Bayraktar, in DİA, IX, pp. 32-35]).

Dede Efendi (Dede Efendi), (d. 1147/1735). He wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, I, p. 307).

Dede Ömer-i Rûşenî (Dede ʿOmar Rušani), (d. 892/1487). The translator of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi. He was a member of the shaikhs of the Ḵalwatiyya order. He lived in Tabriz and its surroundings (Bursalı, I, p. 69; [Mustafa Uzun, Dede Ömer Rûşenî, hayatı, eserleri ve miskinlik-nâme mesnevisi, Ph.D. diss., Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Istanbul, 1982; Kartal, 1999, p. 393]).

[Derûnî b. Abdullah (Daruni b. ʿAbd-Allāh), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 421)].

[Derviş Ahmed b. Süleyman (Derviš Aḥmad b. Solaymān), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Resāla fi wafq al-aʿdād on mathematics (OMLT, I, pp. 97-98)].

Derviş Bey b. İskender Paşa (Derviš Bey b. Eskender Pāšā), (d. 998/1589-90). He wrote poems in Persian (ML, III, p. 587; [Kartal, 1999, p. 421]).

Derviş Paşa [b. Bayezid] Bosnevî (Derviš Pāšā b. Bāyazid Busnawi), (d. 1012/1603). The translator of [Benāʾi’s Saḵā-nāma] under the title of Morād-nāma (ML, III, p. 588; [V. J. Parry, in EI2, II, p. 208; M. C. Baysun, in İA, III, pp. 549-551; M. Ak, in DİA, IX, pp. 196-97; DAF, VI, pp. 378-79]).

[Derviş Çelebi, Halebî-zade (Derviš Čelebi, Ḥalabi-zāda), (d. 938/1531). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 421)].

[Derviş Çelebi (Derviš Čelebi), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 421)].

[Derviş Hasan, Mehdî or Medhî (Derviš Ḥasan, Mehdi or Medhi), (d. 11th/17th century). The translator of Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma for Sultan ʿOṯmān II (1618-1622) (Blochet, I, pp. 314-315; C. J. Tornberg, p. 93; W. D. Simirnow, pp. 82-83; F. I. Abdullaeva, pp. 49-57)].

[Derviş Sâlih-i Ahgerî (Derviš Ṣāleḥ Aḵgari), (d. 11th/17th century). The author of the Resāla dar bayān-e maʿrefat-e ḡorra-ye šohur-e ʿArabi (OALT, I, p. 269; DAF, VI, p. 379)].

Derviş Abdu’r-Rahman-zade (Derviš ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān-zāda), (d. 10th/16th century). Ottoman poet. He wrote many of his poems in Persian (Ergun, III, p. 1165).

Derviş Osman b. Abdullah (Derviš ʿOṯmān b. ʿAbd-Allāh). The author of the Deh maysara (Süleymaniye Library, Halid Efendi Eki, no. 71), the Golšan-e ʿebād (Halid Efendi Eki, no. 71), the Golšan-e ʿerfān (Bayezid Devlet Library, Ali Emirî Efendi, no. 149) and the Anis al-ʿāšeqin (Süleymaniye Library, Esad Efendi, no. 3880).

Derviş, Müverrih, Ahmed Âşıkî (Derviš, Movarreḵ, Aḥmad ʿĀšeqi). See Ahmed Müneccimbaşı Derviş Âşık Dede.

Derviş Mahfî (Derviš Maḵfi), (d. 11th/17th century). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Moḵtār-nāma (Bursalı, III, p. 181).

Derviş Sineçâk Osman (Derviš Sine≈āk ʿOṯmān), (d. 1055/1645). The author of the Golšan-e ʿerfān-e Fārsi (Bursalı, II, p. 172).

[Derviş Yesevî, Seyyid Mürşid (Derviš Yasawi, Sayyid Moršed), (d. 10th/16th century). The author of the Ḥojjat al-abrār and the commentator the first three lines of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi (Riāḥi, p. 198; DAF, VI, p. 318, 380)].

Dürrî, Süleyman (Dorri, Soleymān), (d. 13th/19th century). The author of the Goharriz, a Persian dictionary (Bursalı, III, p. 267; Ergun, III, p. 1190).

[Dürrî, Abdü’l-Bâkî b. Hasan Bahrî (Dorri, ʿAbd-al-Bāki b. Ḥasan Baḥri), (d. 1025/1616). He wrote poems in Persian (TDEA, II, p. 400; DAF, VI, p. 380)].

Dürrî, Vanlı Ahmed [b. Ebu Bekir Vehbî] (Dorri, Vānli, Aḥmad b. Abu Bakr Wahbi), (d. 1135/1722). The author of the Sefāret-nāme-i İrān in Turkish (Bursalı, III, p. 190; Ergun, III, p. 1191; Unat, p. 59; [A. Talay, in DİA, X, pp. 34-35]).

[Demirtaş, Ebu Abdullah Mehmed (Demirṭāš, Abu ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad), (d. 935/1528). He wrote a naẓira on ʿAṭṭār’s Manteq al-ṭayr under title of Jāmʿ al-asrār wa kašf al-astār (Bursalı, I, p. 70)].

[Duneysirî, Şemseddin Mohammad b. Kadı Şeyh Eminüddin b. Ebu’l-Mekârim Eyyüb b. İbrahim (Donaysari, Šams-al-Din Moḥammad b. Qāżi Šaiḵ Amin-al-Din b. Abu’l-Makārem Ayyub b. Ebrāhim), (d. 7th/13th century). The author of the Nawāder al-tabādor le-toḥfat al-bahādor in 672/1273 (ed. Moḥammad Taqi-Dānešpajuh – Iraj Afšār, Tehran, 1350/1971) (Riāḥi, p. 129; DAF, VI, p. 517, 880-81)].

[Dehhânî, Hoca (Dahhāni, Ḵʷāja), (d. 7th/13th century). The author of the Šahnāma-ye Saljuqi in verse-form (Köprülü, 1943, pp. 393-97; Köprülü, 1980, p. 271; TDEA, II, p. 222; DAF, VI, pp. 388-89)].

---ḎḎḎ--- [Zihnî, Abdü’l-Celil b. Necef-i Bağdadî, Necef-zade (Ḏehni, ʿAbd-al-Jalil b. Najaf Baḡdādi, Najaf-zāda), (d. 1023/1614-15). The translator of ʿAli b. Šehāb-al-Din Hamadāni’s Ḏaḵirat al-moluk under the title of Ganjina-ye saʿādat (DAF, VI, p. 402)].

---RRR--- Râşid Ahmed Paşa (Rāšed Aḥmad Pāšā), (d. 1309/1891). The translator of ʿAbd-Allāh Anṣāri’s works (Bursalı, III, p. 60).

[Râşid, Ahmed b. Yahya (Rāšed, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā), (d. 1260/1844). The translator of the Tarjoma-ye manẓum-e pand-nāma-ye Loqmān Hakim (DAF, VI, p. 405)].

Râgıb Mehmed Paşa, [Koca Râgıb Paşa b. Şevki Efendi] (Rāḡeb Moḥammad Pāšā, Kuja Rāḡeb Pāšā b. Šawqi Efendi], (d. 1176/1763). The translator of ʿAbd-al-Razzāq Samarqandi’s Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdayn wa majmaʿ al-baḥrayn [and Mir-ḵʷānd’s Rawżat al-ṣafā] ([Bursalı, II, pp. 190-92; B. S. Baykal-A. Karahan, in İA, IX, pp. 594-98; F. Babinger, in EI2, VIII, pp. 390-91]).

[Râvendî, Muhammed b. Ali (Rāvandi, Moḥammad b. ʿAli), (d. 7th/13th century). The author of the Rāḥat al-ṣodur wa āyat al-sorur for Saljuq Sultan Ḡeyāṯ-al-Din Kayḵosrov I (1192-1196, 1205-1211) (ed. Moḥammad Eqbāl, London-Leiden, 1921; Turk. tr. Ahmed Ateş, 2 vols., Ankara, 1957-1960; A. Sevim, in DİA, XXV, pp. 348-49; C. Hillenbrand, in EI2, VIII, pp. 460-61)].

[Râyî, Mustafa b. Dürrî Mehmed Efendi (Rāʾi, Moṣṭafā b. Dorri Moḥammad Efendi), (d. 981/1573). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 408)].

Rahmî, Hoca [b. Ahmed Efendi] (Raḥmi, Ḵʷāja b. Aḥmed Efendi), (d. 1301/1884). The translator of Saʿdi’s Bustān (Bursalı, II, p. 206; [TDEA, VII, p. 270]).

Rahmî İbrahim [b. Abdü’l-Hamid-i Giridî] (Raḥmi Ebrāhim b. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamid Geridi), (d. 1312/1894). The commentator of Ḥāfeẓ’s divān (Bursalı, II, pp. 206-208; [TDEA, VII, p. 271]).

Rahmî Mustafa [b. Ahmed, Tatar-zade] (Raḥmi Moṣṭafā b. Aḥmad, Tātār-zāda), (d. 1164/1750). The author of the Sefāret-nāme-i İrān in Turkish (Bursalı, III, p. 57; [TDEA, VII, p. 271]).

[Rıfat, Mehmed (Re’fat, Moḥammad), (d. 1289/1872). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, pp. 408-409)].

[Rahmî, Pir Mehmed b. Bâlî Nakkâş (Raḥmi, Pir Moḥammad b. Bāli Naqqāš), (d. 975/1567-68). The translator of Helāli’s Šāh o derviš under the title of Šāh o gedā in verse-form and the commentator of Jāmi’s Toḥfat al-aḥrār (DAF, VI, p. 412)].

[Rodosî-zade, Mehmed b. Abdullah (Rodusi-zāda, Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-Allāh). See Mehmed b. Abdullah, Rodosî-zade].

Rüstem el-Mevlevî (Rostam al-Mawlawi). See Hatib Rüstem [Dede, Mevlevî].

Rüşdî, Mehmed, [Deli Rüşdî] (Rošdi, Moḥammad, Deli Rošdi), (d. 1105/1693). He wrote poems in Persian (TEA, IV, p. 999; [TDEA, VII, p. 367; DAF, VI, p. 414]).

[Rüşdî-i Bosnevî, Kadı Ahmed b. Abdullah (Rošdi Busnawi, Qāżi Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh), (d. 1111/1699). He wrote poems in Persian (TEA, IV, p. 999; TDEA, VII, pp. 366-67; DAF, VI, pp. 414-15)].

[Rüşdî-i Karahisarî (Rošdi Qara-ḥeṣāri), (d. 11th/17th century). The commentator of Saʿdi’s Golestān (TEA, IV, p. 999; DAF, VI, p. 415)].

[Reşid-i Bosnevî, Mehmed (Rašid Busnawi, Moḥammad), (d. 12th/18th century). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 415)].

[Rıza-yı Tebrizî, Mehmed Rıza Paşa Çelebi b. Hace Emir (Reżā Tabrizi, Moḥammad Reża Pāšā Čelebi b. Ḵʷāja Amir), (d. 12th/18th century). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 416)].

[Rıza, Şeyh Rıza Muʿineddin b. Şeyh Musa b. Şeyh Mahmud (Reżā, Šaiḵ Reżā Moʿin-al-Din b. Šaiḵ Musā b. Šaiḵ Maḥmud), (d. 983/1575-76). The author of the Maslak al-sālek (DAF, VI, p. 416)].

[Rıza’î, Kassab-zade Abdü’l-Kerim (Reżāʾi, Qaṣṣāb-zāda ʿAbd-al-Karim), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, pp. 450-51)].

[Rıza’î, Mahmud (Reżāʾi, Maḥmud), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 450)].

[Rıdvan, Ahmed, Tütünsüz (Reżwān, Ah3mad, Tutunsuz), (d. 10th/16th century). The translator of Neẓāmi’s Lailā o Majnun, Maḵzan al-asrār and Haft paykar (TDEA, VII, pp. 325-26; TEA, I, pp. 62-63; İ. Ünver, in DİA, II, pp. 123-12; DAF, VI, p. 416)].

Rıfat, Kilisli Muallim (Refʿat, Kelisli Moʿallem), (1290/1873-1373/1953). The translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān and the Bustān [(1943)]. He edited the ʿArż-nāma by Jalāl-al-Din Devāni and the Bazm o razm by ʿAziz b. Ardašir Astarābādi [(1928)] ([TDEA, I, p. 430; TEA, I, p. 233]).

[Rıfatî (Refʿati), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 451)].

[Remzî, Mustafa (Ramzi, Moṣṭafā), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 450)].

Riyâzî, Mehmed b. Mustafa (Reyāżi, Moḥammad b. Moṣṭafā), (d. 1054/1644). The author of the Dastur al-ʿamal, a Persian grammar book (Süleymaniye Library, Ali Nihâd Tarlan, no. 110/7; [TEA, IV, pp. 992-93; TDEA, VII, pp. 338-39; G. Alpay-Tekin, in EI2, VIII, pp. 548-549; DAF, VI, pp. 423-24]).

---ZZZ--- Zâhid b. Ârif Çelebi (Zāhed b. ʿĀref Čelebi), (d. 9th/15th century). The translator of Aflāki’s Manāqeb al-ʿārefin (Aflāki, Manāqeb al-ʿārefin, I, p. xxx).

[Zobdat al-naṣāyeḥ men al-ṣaḥā’eḥ. An anonymous resāla on ethics and politics, which was composed for Ottoman prince Aḥmad son Sultan Bāyazid II in 906/1501 in Amasya (For autograph? see Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Ms. Orient. Oct. 2288; VOHD, XIV/1, pp. 155-56 no. 190)].

[Zekî-i Kimyager, Ali Bosnevî-i Rumî (Zaki Kimiāgar, ʿAli Busnawi Rumi), (d. 1123/1711). He wrote poems in Persian and commentated the Loḡat-e Šāhedi (DAF, VI, p. 416)].

Zelâlî-i Hemedanî (Zelāli Hamadāni), (d. 10th/16th century). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He came from Iran to Anatolia (Sohrweide, 1970, p. 272).

Zeyneb Hatun [bint Kadı Mehmed Efendi] (Zaynab Ḵātun bent Qāżi Moḥammad Efendi), (d. 879/1474). Ottoman poet. She offered her Persian poems to Sultan Mehmed (Moḥammad) II (Laṭifi, pp. 278-279; Bursalı, II, p. 215; Uzunçarşılı, II, p. 592; [Kartal, 1999, p. 406]).

[Zirekî-i Hemedanî (Ziraki Hamadāni), (d. 10th/16th century). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He translated of Moṣṭafā ʿĀli’s Mehr o māh from Turkish into Persian. He also wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, pp. 467-68)].

---SSS--- Sâ’îlî-i Cüveynî (Sā’eli Juwayni), (d. 9th/15th century). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He came from Iran to Anatolia (Ḵayyāmpur, p. 259; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 271).

[Saʿatî, Yusuf b. Ömer (Sāʿāti, Yusof b. ʿOmar), (d. after 967/1560). The author of Ṣaḥā’ef-e taqwim (Riāḥi, p. 212; OALT, I, pp. 137-38)].

[Sâlik, Halil b. Seyyid Mehmed Efendi (Sālek, Ḵalil b. Sayyid Moḥammad Efendi), (d. 1136/1722). He wrote poems in Persian (TDEA, VII, pp. 441-42; DAF, VI, p. 434)].

Sâlim, Mehmed Emin [Mirza-zade b. Şeyhü’l-İslâm Mirza Mustafa] (Sālem, Moḥammed Amin Mirzā-zāda b. Šaiḵ-al-Eslām Mirzā Moṣṭafā), (d. 1156/1743). [Ottoman taḏkera-writer. He wrote poems in Persian and] the Türkçe-Fārsça Lüḡat, a Turkish-Persian dictionary (Bursalı, II, p. 235; [TDEA, VII, p. 443; Ö. F. Akün, in İA, X, pp. 130-33]).

[Sâlim, Mustafa (Sālem, Moṣṭafā), (d. 13th/19th century). The translator of Fożuli’s Rind o zāhed (DAF, VI, pp. 434-35; A. Karahan, in DİA, XIII, p. 245)].

Sipahî-i Larendevî, [Derviş] (Sepāhi Lārandawi, Darviš), ([d. 11th/17th century]). The author of the Loḡat-e moškelāt-e ejzā-ye farhang-e ʿArabi-Fārsi-Berberi-Torki (Bursalı, III, p. 217; DAF, VI, pp. 435-36]).

Sehâbî [-i Hemedanî], Hüsameddin (Saḥābi Hamadāni, Ḥosām-al-Din), (d. 971/1563). Ottoman poet of Iranian origin. He came with Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566) from Iran to Istanbul in 942/1535. He translated Ḡazāli’s Kimiā-ye saʿādat for Sultan Süleyman. He wrote poems in Persian (Bursalı, II, p. 227; Âgâh Sırrı Levend, p. 288; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 273; [Kartal, 1999, pp. 453-54; DAF, VI, p. 437]).

Sirâcuddin-i Urmevî, [Ebu’s-Senâ Mahmud b. Ebu Bekir b. Hâmid] (Serāj-al-Din Ormawi, Abu’l-Ṯanā Maḥmud b. Abu Bakr b. Ḥāmed), (d. 682/1283). He wrote the Laṭā’ef al-ḥekma and the Mojmal al-ḥekma (Laṭā’ef al-ḥekma, ed. Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yusofi, Tehran, 1351/1972; Riāḥi, pp. 123-126; Meftāḥ-Wali, pp. 105-106; DAF, VI, pp. 436-437, 723-724)].

Sirâc Hatib (Serāj Ḵāṭib), (d. 9th/15th century). Ottoman scholar of Iranian origin. He came from Iran to Anatolia (Šaqā’eq, pp. 218-19; Sohrweide, 1970, p. 267).

Saʿdeddin Efendi, Hoca [b. Hâfız Hasan Can b. Mehmed Can] (Saʿd-al-Din Efendi, Ḵʷāja b. Ḥāfeẓ Ḥasan Jān b. Moḥammad Jān), (d. 1008/1599). The author of the Tāj al-tawāriḵ in Turkishand the translator of Moṣleḥ-al-Din Lāri’s Merāt al-adwār wa merqād al-aḵbār (Bursalı, III, p. 67; TCYK, 91; Ş. Turan, in İA, X, pp. 27-32; B. Flamming, in EI2, V, pp. 27-28).

Saʿdî Çelebi, Tâcî-zade (Saʿdi Čelebi, Tāji-zāda), (d. 920/1514). He wrote poems and a monša’āt in Persian (Monša’āt, ed. Neceti Lugal-Adnan Sadık Erzi, Istanbul, 1953; Kartal, 1999, p. 452).

Sürûrî, Muslihüddin Mustafa [b. Hoca Şaban-ı Rumî] (Soruri, Moṣleh-al-Din Moṣṭafā b. Ḵʷāca Šaʿbān Rumi), (d. 969/1562). The commentator of Saʿdi’s Golestān, Ḥāfeẓ’s divān, Mawlānā’s Maṯnawi and the translator of [ʿAli b. Šehāb-al-Din Hamadāni’s] Ḏaḵirat al-moluk.[He also wrote poems in Persian] (Bursalı, II, pp. 225-226; [M. Oğuz (Ortaç), 1998; B. Elbir, 2003; Riāḥi, pp. 216-217; Kartal, 1999, p. 455; Ö. F. Akün, in İA, XI, pp. 249-250; E. G. Ambros, in EI2, IX, pp. 895-896; DAF, VI, pp. 411-443]).

[Surûş (Soruš). Persian journal was published in Istanbul (Meftāḥ-Wali, pp. 389-90; DAF, VI, pp. 433-44)].

[Saʿî (Saʿi), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, p. 453)].

[Saʿid Efendi, Mehmed b. Ahmed Baba (Saʿid Efendi, Moḥammad b. Aḥmad Bābā), (d. 1288/1871). He wrote poems in Persian and translated Saʿdi’s Golestān under the title of Molestān (Istanbul, 1291) (Bursalı, II, pp. 238-239; DAF, VI, p. 453)].

Saʿidüddin el-Ferganî (Saʿîd-al-Din al-Farḡāni), (d. 7th/13th century). The author of the Manāhej al-ʿebād elā al-maʿād and the commentator of the šarḥ-e qaṣida-ye tā’eyya (Ateş, 1945, p. 115).

[Sultan Ahmed b. Mevlânâ Sirâcuddin Mahmud b. Sultan Hacı-şah Kureyşî (Solṭān Aḥmad b. Mawlānā Serāj-al-Din Maḥmud b. Solṭān Ḥājji-šāh Qoraiši) (d. 10th/16th century). He was of Iranian origin. He wrote the Jāmiʿ al-moršedin in 972/1564 (For autograph see Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Ms. Orient. Oct. 2847; VOHD, XIV/1, pp. 274-275 no. 352)].

[Sultan Veled, Bahâeddin Muhammed b. Mevlânâ Celâleddin Muhammed (Sulṭān Walad, Bahā’-al-Din Moḥammad b. Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Moḥammad), (d. 712/1312). The author of a divān, the Ebtedā-nāma, the Robāb-nāma, the Entehā-nāma and the Maʿāref in Persian (Divān, ed. Feridun Nafiz Uzluk, Ankara, 1941; Walad-nāma, ed. Jalāl Homāʾi, Tehran, 1315/1936; Ebtedā-nāma, Turk. tr. Abdülbâkî Gölpınarlı, İbtidâ-nâme, Ankara, 1976; Robāb-nāma, ed. ʿAli Solṭāni Farāmorzi, Tehran, 1359/1980; Veyis Değirmençay, Sultan Veled ve Rebâb-nâme, Ph.D. diss., Atatürk Üniverstesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Erzurum, 1996; Maʿāref, Turk. tr. Meliha Anbarcıoğlu, Maʿârif, Istanbul, 1984; Köprülü, 1943, pp. 453-455; M. I. Waley, in EIr., III, pp. 435-36; DAF, VI, pp. 131-32, 455-56)].

Selim, Yavuz Sultan (Selim, Yavuz Solṭān), ([r. 1512-1520, d. 926/1520]). Ottoman Sultan. He wrote a divān in Persian (Ş. Altundağ, inİA, X, pp. 423-434; [Divān, ed. Istanbul, 1306; ed. Paul Horn, Berlin, 1904; Turk. tr. Ali Nihâd Tarlan, Istanbul, 1946]).

Süleyman Aczî (Soleymān ʿĀjzi), (d. 1150/1737). He wrote a divān in Persian (Bursalı, I, pp. 123-24).

[Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan (Soleymān, the Magnificent), (r. 1520-1566, d. 974/1566). Ottoman sultan. He wrote two divāns, one in Turkish and one in Persian (Persian divān, ed. and Turk. tr. Coşkun Ak, Muhibbî’nin Farsça divanı, Bursa, 1995; M. T. Gökbilgin, in İA, XI, pp. 99-115; Riāḥi, pp. 144-46; G. Veinstein, in EI2, IX, pp. 832-42)].

Süleyman [Sadeddin], Müstakim-zade (Soleymān Saʿd-al-Din, Mostaqim-zāda), (d. 1202/1788). The author of the Toḥfa-ye ḵaṭṭāṭin [(ed. İbnü’l-Emin Mahmud Kemal, Istanbul, 1928)], the biographies of Turkish and Persian calligraphers (Bursalı, I, p. 168; [DAF, VI, pp. 799-801; A. Yılmaz, in DİA, XXXII, pp. 113-15]).

[Süleyman Efendi, Neşet (Solaymān Efendi, Naš’at), (d. 1222/1807). The author of the Ṭofān-e maʿrefat and Šarḵ-e du-bayt-e Maṯnawi (Ü. Aslan, 1999; Bursalı, II, pp. 461-62; DAF, VI, p. 555)].

[Süleyman Nazif (Soleymān Naẓif), (1869-1927). The author of the Nāṣer-al-Din-šāh ve Bāb^ler in Turkish (Istanbul, 1923) (TDEA, VIII, pp. 66-67)].

[Süleyman Veysî (Soleymān Waysi). The author of the Toḥfat al-soʿadā’ (Istanbul, 1271)].

[Süleyman-şah II b. Kılıç-Arslan II, Rükneddin (Soleymān-šāh II b. Qele≈-Arslān, Rokn-al-Din), (r. 1196-1204, d. 600/1204). Saljuq sultan. He wrote robāʿis in Persian (O. Turan, in İA, XI, pp. 219-31; Riāḥi, p. 48; Meftāḥ-Wali, pp. 28-29)].

Sinan Paşa, Sinaneddin Yusuf [b. Hızır Bey] (Senān Pāšā, Senān-al-Din Yusof b. Ḵeżr Bey), (d. 891/1486). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Taḏkerat al-awliyā [(ed. Emine Gürsoy Naskali, Ankara, 1987)]. He wrote a naẓira on ʿAbd-Allāh Anṣāri’s Elahi-nāma (Bursalı, II, p. 228; [H. Mazıoğlu], in İA, X, pp. 666-670; [C. Woodhead, in EI2, IX, pp. 630-31]).

Sûdî-i Bosnevî, [Ahmed] (Sudi Busnawi, Aḥmad), (d. 1005/1596). The commentator of Saʿdi’s Golestān [(Istanbul, 1290; Persian tr. Ḥaidar Ḵuš-niyat – Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin Čāvuši – ʿAli Akbar Kāẓemi, Tabriz, 1349/1970)] and Bustān [(Istanbul, 1288; Persian tr. Akbar Behruz, 2 vols., Tabriz, 1352/1973)], Ḥāfeẓ’s divān [(3 vols., Istanbul, 1250; Eng. tr. W. H. Lowe, 1877; Persian tr. ʿEṣmat Sattār-zāda, Tehran, 1341/1962)] [and Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi’s Maṯnawi-ye maʿnawi] (Bursalı, II, p. 323; [Riāḥi, p. 216; N. Hoca, 1978; Y. Ertek,1994; K. Burrill, in EI2, IX, p. 762; DAF, VI, pp. 481-82, 505-507]).

[Sümer, Faruk (Sumer, Fāruq), (1924-1995). Turkish scholar. He edited Abu Bakr Ṭehrāni’s Ketāb-e Diyārbakriyya with Prof. Necati Lugal (2 vols., Ankara, 1962) (DAF, VI, p. 629)].

[Saʿdî, Hafız-zade, Seyyid] Mehmed Çelebi [b. Seyyid Mustafa, Zirek-zade] (Saʿdî, Ḥāfeẓ-zāda, Sayyid Moḥammad Èelebi b. Sayyid Moṣṭafā, Zirak-zāda), ([d. 1105/1693]). The translator of Qāżi Maybadi’s Jām-e Giti-nomā (Bursalı, II, p. 229; [TDEA, VII, p. 398; DAF, VI, p. 449]).

Sehmî, Mehmed Çelebi (Sehmi, Moḥammad Čelebi), (d. 1055/1645). The translator of ʿAṭṭār’s Taḏkerat al-awliyā. He wrote a naẓira on the Elahi-nāma of ʿAbd-Allāh Anṣāri (Bursalı, II, p. 228).

Süheylî, Ahmed b. Hemdem (Sohayli, Aḥmad b. Hamdam), (d. 11th/17th century). [The author] of the Nawāder-e Sohayli (Bursalı, III, p. 68).

Seyyid Lokman b. Seyyid Hüseyin [el-Âşûrî el-Hüseynî] el-Urmevî (Sayyid Loqmān b. Sayyid Ḥosayn al-ʿĀšuri al-Ḥosayni al-Ormawi), [d. 1010/1601]. The author of the Šahanšah-nāma-ye Morād-e Ṯāleṯ (See Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Library, Revan, no. 824; Bursalı, III, p. 135; [Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Library, Bağdad Köşkü, no. 200; İstanbul Üniversitesi Library, FY, no. 1404; Sobḥāni-Aksu, p. 610); Göttingen, Ms. Pers. 67; VOHD, XIV/2, no. 29, pp. 36-38; Hādi Enāl (Hadi İnal), Šāh-nāma-ye Salim Ḵān (-e Dovvom)-e ʿOṯmāni ta’lif-e Loqmān b. Ḥosayn-e ʿĀšuri al-Ormawi, Ph.D. diss., Tehran University, Tehran, 1361/1982; Bekir Kütükoğlu, 1991, pp. 39-48; Özgüdenli, p. 446]).

[Seydî, Kara (Saydi, Qara), (d. 10th/16th century). He wrote poems in Persian (Kartal, 1999, pp. 454-55)].

Seyyid Mehmed Refîʿ Efendi (Sayyid Moḥammad Rafiʿ Efendi), (d. 12th/18th century). The author of the Sefāret-nāme-i İrān in Turkish (Bursalı, III, p. 190; Unat, p. 203).

[Seyfeddin Muhammed el-Ferganî (Sayf-al-Din Moḥammad al-Farḡāni), (d. 8th/14th century). Saljuq poet. He wrote a divān in Persian (Divān-e Sayf-e Farḡāni, ed. Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā, 3 vols., Tehran, 1341/1962; Mahin Kāmravāni,1357/1978; Ahmed Ateş, 1959, pp. 415-456; Riāḥi, pp. 109-111)].

[Seyyahî-i Bosnevî, Mustafa Efendi (Sayyāḥi Busnawi, Moṣṭafā Efendi), (d. 11th/17th century). He wrote poems in Persian (DAF, VI, p. 483)].

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Last Updated: May 25, 2010