ESTEQLĀL-e ĪRĀN, an evening daily published in Tehran from 22 Jomādā I 1328 to 22 Šaʿbān 1329 (31 May 1910-17 August 1911), the last issue being 2/59. It was the organ of the small Unity and Progress party (Ḥezb-e ettefāq o taraqqī) and was published by the party’s leader, the well-known constitutionalist Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn Mostaʿān-al-Molk (though in the newspaper itself the publisher is identified as “Šerkat-e esteqlāl-e Īrān”). Its successive editors were Dr. Ḥosayn Khan Kaḥḥāl (the former editor of Šarq), Dr. Abu’l-Ḥasan Khan Tabrīzī, and Sayyed Moḥammad Khan Mīr-Faḵrāʾī (Mohandes Homāyūn). In June 1910 three issues contained a French supplement entitled Indépendance Perse. In August, at the time of the disarming of the fedāʾīs, it was for a few days the only newspaper published in Tehran. Format was four to six five-column pages measuring 41 x 55 cm. It carried advertisements but no illustrations; a single issue was priced at 4 šāhīs in Tehran and 5 šāhīs elsewhere. Annual subscription was 50 qerāns in Tehran, 55 qerāns in the provinces, and 75 qerāns abroad. 800-1000 copies published per issue (Browne, Press and Poetry, p. 25). Copies are accessible in Majles Libraries I and II, Central library of Tehran University, National library in Tehran, Cambridge University, and Asia Institute (Moʾassasa-ye āsīāʾī) in Shiraz.
Bibliography (for cited works not given in detail see “Short References”):
Y. Arīānpūr, Az Ṣabā tā Nīmā II, p. 110.
Bohlūl (Tehran) 6, 23 Rabīʿ I 1329/24 March 1911, p. 3.
Browne, Press and Poetry, pp. xiii, 25, 40, 48, 324.
Š. Esfandīārī et al, Maṭbūʿāt. Fehrest-e taḥlīlī-e Majles-e senā, Tehran, 1358 Š./1979, p. 19.
M. Etteḥādīya, Peydāyeš o taḥawwol-e aḥzāb-e sīāsī-e Mašrūṭīyat, Tehran, 1361 Š./1982, pp. 235-36.
ʿAlī Ḡarawī Nūrī, Ḥezb-e demokrāt dar dawra-ye dovvom-e Majles-e šūrā-ye mellī, Tehran 1352 Š./1973, pp. 80, 82-83.
H. L. Rabino, Ṣūrat-e jarāʾed-e Īrān. . ., Rašt, 1329/1911, no. 19.
Ṣadr Hāšemī, Jarāʾed o majallāt, no. 123.
B. Sartīpzāda and K. Ḵodāparast, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye mawjūd dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye mellī-e Īrān, Tehran, 1356 Š./1977, no. 55.
U. Sims-Williams, Union Catalogue of Persian Serials and Newspapers in British Libraries, London, 1985, no. 241.
G. Šokrī, “Fehrest-e Rūz-nāmahā wa majallahā-ye fārsī dar Moʾassassa-ye āsīāʾī-e Šīrāz,” FIZ 27, 1366 Š./1987, p. 332.
M. Solṭānī, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye fārsī dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazī-ye Dānešgāh-e Tehrān, Tehran, 1354 Š./1975, no. 34.
M. M. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Tārīḵ-e taḥlīlī-e maṭbūʿāt-e Īrān, Tehran, 1366 Š./1987, pp. 164-65.
Originally Published: December 15, 1998
Last Updated: January 19, 2012
This article is available in print.
Vol. VIII, Fasc. 6, p. 655