QOŠUN (later Arteš), the organ of the Iranian armed forces (qošun, arteš), published in Tehran from 9 Esfand 1300 until Esfand 1313 Š. (28 February 1922 to March 1935), when the title was changed to Arteš and publication continued until Bahman1315 Š. (January-February 1937). Qošun was published as a weekly magazine for the first three issues and then as a biweekly periodical until the final year of publication, when it became a monthly journal. It was founded by Major General Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Mirzā Firuz (b. Tehran 1896; d. in Europe 1981), whose name appeared as such in the magazine for a number of years. From the fourth issue, Reżā Khan Sardār-e Sepah, the minister of war and future Reza Shah, ordered Faraj-Allāh Bahrāmi Dabir-e Aʿẓam (1881-1951), his private secretary (raʾis-e daftar) at the ministry, to assume responsibility for the publication of the magazine, with Captain Ḥosayn-ʿAli Efteḵār-e Neẓām (Razmārā) as the manager. That same year, however, Reżā Khan asked Ḥabib-Allāh Nowbaḵšt (b. Shiraz, 1895; d. Tehran, 1975), the publisher of Bahārestān and a supporter of Reżā Khan’s bid for power, to run the magazine, but his responsibilities as its director and chief editor were never acknowledged in the publication. Nowbaḵšt’s tenure at the journal lasted for three years (Ṣafāʾi, p. 437). The journal was divided into two parts during its first few years of publication. One part, called the official section (qesmat-e rasmi), focused on issues related to the military, and the other, called the free section (qesmat-e āzād), contained material on historical events and reflections on political and social developments of the day along the lines of Sardār-e Sepah’s interests. During Reza Shah’s reign (1925-41), his picture in military uniform decorated the cover.

The journalwas printed in eight double-column pages of 33.5 x 41.5 cm, first at the Tamaddon printing house and then at the army’s own printing facilities. During the final few years of publication, when the journal was prepared at Fardin printers, it was published in about 100 pages of 15 x 22 cm and carried no illustrations. The annual subscription rate was 60 krans for military personnel and 80 krans for others. Towards the end, the subscription rate was reduced to 36-50 rials for the military but remained unchanged for others.

Complete and incomplete sets of Qošun andits replacement, Arteš,are kept in many major Persian libraries and at the Princeton University Library.


Kāva Bayāt, “Ašāyer az didgāh-e manābeʿ-e neẓāmi-e moʿāṣer,” Tāriḵ-e moʿāṣer-e Irān 1, Autumn 1989, pp. 121-24.

Masʿud Barzin, Šenās-nāma-ye maṭbuʿāt-e Irān az 1215 tā 1275 Š., Tehran, 1992, p. 315.

Fehrest-e majallāt-e mawjud dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazi-e Āstān-e qods-e rażawi, Mashad, 1982, no. 335.

Rudolf Mach and Robert D. McChesney, “A List of Persian Serials in the Princeton University Library,” Unpublished Monograph, Princeton, 1971.

Ṣadr Hāšemi, Jarāʾed o majallāt IV, pp. 110-11.

Ebrāhim Ṣafāʾi, Reżā Šāh dar āʾina-ye ḵāṭerāt, Tehran,1976, p. 437.

Bižan Sartipzāda and Kobrā Ḵodāparast, Fehrest-e ruz-nāmahā-ye mawjud dar Ketāb-ḵāna-yemelli, Tehran, 1978, no. 415.

Giti Šokri, “Fehrest-e ruz-nāmahā wamajallahā-ye fārsi dar Moʾassasa-ye āsiāʾi-e Dānešgāh-e Širāz,” FIZ 27, p. 389.

Mortażā Solṭāni, Fehrest-e ruz-nāmahā-yefārsi dar majmuʿa-ye Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazi wa markaz-e asnād-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān … 1267 qamari tā 1320 šamsi, Tehran, 1977, no, 50.

Laylā Sudbaḵš, “Fehrest-e našriyāt-e adwāri dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazi-e Fārs,” Shiraz, 1999, no. 724.

April 7, 2008

(Nassereddin Parvin)

Originally Published: April 7, 2008

Last Updated: April 7, 2008