Table of Contents

  • CROWN iv. Of Persian rulers from the Arab conquerors

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Despite abhorrence of imperial titles and regalia in early Islamic traditions, Omayyad and ʿAbbasid governors, and the rulers of Ṭabarestān, continued to employ on their coins the iconography of the coins of the Sasanian rulers Ḵosrow II and Yazdegerd III.

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    See ḴĀṢṢA.

  • CROWN v. In the Qajar and Pahlavi periods

    Yaḥyā Ḏokāʾ

    Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1797-1834) ordered the cre­ation of a tall, jeweled crown with eight peaks on a red velvet cap, the Kayānī crown. From that time on all Qajar kings wore this crown, which is now kept in the Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān (Central bank of Iran).

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  • CROWN JEWELS of Persia

    Patricia Jellicoe

    the assemblage of jewels collected by the kings of Persia, kept now in the Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān (Central bank of Iran) in Tehran.


    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    the officially recognized heir apparent to the throne.


    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    by the French orientalist Henri Massé (b. Lunéville, France, 2 March 1886, d. Paris, 9 November 1969), published in 1938, one of the most compre­hensive and reliable texts on general Persian folklore in a Western language.


    Peter Jackson

    in relation to Persia; the term “crusade” refers to a series of Christian holy wars fought in the Middle Ages against the Muslims in Syria and Palestine and subsequently elsewhere in the Near East and, by extension, to wars against other enemies, both within and outside Christendom, that were put on the same spiritual footing by the popes.


    Layla S. Diba

    originally a type of fine glass developed in England in the 17th century and owing its special clarity and brilliance to the high refractive index of lead oxide in the metal; the term is often applied to fine glass in general.


    Brigitte Musche, Jens Kröger

    a pure, transparent variety of quartz, usually called “rock crystal” to distinguish it from crystal glass.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Ktēsías),  Greek physician at the Achaemenid court and author of Persiká (b. perhaps ca. 441 BCE).