EḤTĪĀJ, weekly newspaper published in Tabrīz by ʿAlīqolī Khan Tabrīzī, known as Ṣafarov, who had distributedpolitical šab-nāmas (lit. night letters) in 1310/1892. Seven issues of Eḥtīāj appeared between 12 Moḥarram and 1 Rabīʿ I 1316/3 June-20 July 1898. The meaning of its title (Need) alluded to Persia’s dependence on foreign manufactures. Its satirical articles on this subject led Moḥammad-ʿAlī Mīrzā, the crown prince, and his chief steward (pīškār) Amīr-Neẓām Garrūsī (q.v.) to order its suppression. The newspaper reappeared on 29 Rabīʿ I 1316/17 August 1898 under the title Eqbāl, but evidently only a few more issues were published. In 1325/1907 Ṣafarov published the important satirical magazine Āḏarbāyjān (q.v.).
Its format was four double-column pages, 22 by 35.5 cm., lithographed in the nastaʿlīq of Mahdī Moʿāwen-al-Kottāb, carrying advertising, but no illustrations. Annual subscription rates were 8 qerāns in Persia, 2 majīdīyas in the Ottoman empire, 5 rupees in India, and 9 roubles in Russia. Copies are kept at Majles Library I, Tehran University Library, and the Asia Institute, Shiraz.
Bibliography (for cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.”):
Bāmdād, Rejāl I, p. 367.
Browne, Press and Poetry, pp. 15, 21, 31, 44, 108.
Kasrawī, Mašrūṭa4, p. 151.
Ḥ. Omīd, Ketāb-e tārīḵ-e farhang-e Āḏarbāyjān, Tabrīz, 1334 Š./1955, II, p. 18.
H. L. Rabino, Ṣūrat-e jarāyed-e Īrān, Rašt, 1329/1911, no. 6.
Ṣadr Hāšemī, Jarāʾed o majallāt, nos. 38, 172.
Ṣ. Sardārī-nīā, Tārīḵ-e rūz-nāmahā wa majallahā-ye Āḏarbāyjān, Tehran, 1360 Š./1981, pp. 62-64.
ʿA.-Ḥ. Sepehr, Merʾāt al-waqāyeʿ-e moẓaffarī, Tehran, 1368 Š./1989, p. 265.
M. Solṭānī, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye fārsī-e Dāneš-gāh-e Tehrān...marbūṭ ba sālhā-ye 1267 qamarī tā 1320 šamsī, Tehran, 1354 Š./1975, no. 23.
G. Šokrī, “Fehrest-e Rūz-nāmahā wa majallahā-ye fārsī dar Moʾassasa-ye āsīāʾī-e Šīrāz,” FIZ 27, 1366 Š./1987, p. 330.
Originally Published: December 15, 1998
Last Updated: December 9, 2011
This article is available in print.
Vol. VIII, Fasc. 3, p. 271