i. Economic geography.

ii. In the Pre-Achaemenid period.

iii. In the Achaemenid period.

iv. In the Sasanian period.

v. From the Arab conquest to the end of the Il-khanids

vi. In the Timurid period.

vii. From the Safavids through the Zands.

viii. In the Qajar period

ix. In the Pahlavi period

x. Under the Islamic Republic.

xi. In modern Afghanistan.

xii. In Tajikistan.

(Multiple Authors)

Originally Published: December 15, 1997

Last Updated: December 8, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. VIII, Fasc. 1, pp. 88-112 and Vol. VIII, Fasc. 2, pp. 113-173