BOLBOL, MOLLĀ AŠRAF DAYRĪ (1093-­1189/1682-1775-6), Persian poet of Kashmir. He is the author of the Reżā-nāma, the first versified account of the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn to appear in Kashmir (Ins. Srinagar Research Library). The Reżā-nāma is part of a ḵamsa, the four other parts of which, namely Arzan te Heimal (a local Hindu romance), Hašt tamhīd, Mehr o māh, and Hašt asrār, are lost. In his poetry, Bolbol eulogizes local saints and calls on Shiʿites and Sunnis to cease their intra-communal rivalries. His imagery is mainly drawn from nature and occasionally gives a fresh nuance to old tropes.



M. A. Rafīqī, Taʿmīr, Srinagar, January-February, 1961 (biography of Bolbol).

G. L. Tikku, Persian Poetry in Kashmir 1339-1846, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1971, pp. 171­-78.

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 بلبل، اشرف دیری bolbol,ashraf dayri bulbul ashraf dayri boulboul ashraf dayri

(Giri L. Tikku)

Originally Published: December 15, 1989

Last Updated: December 15, 1989

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Vol. IV, Fasc. 4, p. 338