ARTOXARES, a Paphlagonian eunuch at the court of Artaxerxes I and satrap of Armenia. He helped Darius II to ascend the throne and sometime after 419 B.C. laid a plot to overthrow him and was put to death (see J. Gilmore, The Fragments of the Persika of Ktesias, London and New York, 1888, pp. 168-169 and 171: 18.78-80 and 84). Probably he is the same person who is frequently referred to in documents from the archive of the Murašū business house in Nippur (Babylonia) in 443-419 B.C. under the name Artaḫšar as an important royal official, owner of land and many slaves (see for references König, “Artaḥšâra,” Reallexikon der Assyriologie, ed. E. Ebeling et al., Berlin and Leipzig, 1928-, I, p. 156).
See also M. Mayrhofer, Onomastica Persepolitana, Vienna, 1973, p. 164, no. 8.582 Irdakšara.
W. Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut der Nebenüberlieferungen, Wiesbaden, 1975, p. 211 s.v. *rtaxšara- (both with additional references).
Originally Published: December 15, 1986
Last Updated: August 15, 2011
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Vol. II, Fasc. 6, p. 664