ANĀMAKA (a-n-a-m-k-), name of the tenth month (December-January) of the Old Persian calendar (see Kent, Old Persian, p. 161a), equivalent to Akkadian Ṭebētu and Elamite Šermi (for the latter in the Persepolis tablets, see R. T. Hallock, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Chicago, 1969, pp. 74, 756b). The Old Persian name occurs in DB 1.96, 2.26, 56, and 3.63; it is frequently rendered as Elamite Hanamakaš (with variants; see Hallock, ibid., pp. 689f.) in the Persepolis tablets and as Phrygian anamaka in the one Phrygian Persepolis inscription A 23 (V. P. Neroznak, Paleobalkanskie yazyki, Moscow, 1978, pp. 86f.), as was recognized by G. G. Cameron (JNES 32, 1973, pp. 52f.). The name Anāmaka is generally explained as a-namaka- “without name” (e.g., Kent, ibid., p. 167b), which form may be understood as “(month of) the Nameless One.” This term might refer to Ahura Mazdā (so F. B. J. Kuiper, IIJ 18, 1976, pp. 30, 39), or Miθra (J. Kellens, Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 2, 1976, pp. 127f.), or perhaps mean “the nameless (i.e., intercalary) [month]” (W. Brandenstein and M. Mayrhofer, Handbuch des Altpersischen, Wiesbaden, 1964, p. 103, who refer to late Skt. anāmaka- “intercalary month”).

Bibliography: Given in the text.

(R. Schmitt)

Originally Published: December 15, 1985

Last Updated: August 3, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. II, Fasc. 1, p. 1

Cite this entry:

R. Schmitt, “ANĀMAKA,” Encyclopædia Iranica, II/1, p. 1, available online at (accessed on 30 December 2012).