ʿAFĪF, ŠAMS SERĀJ (d. ca. 802/1399), author of Tārīḵ-eFīrūzšāhī, a Persian life of Fīrūz Shah Toḡloq (r. 752-90/1351-88). Like his father, grandfather and great grandfather before him, ʿAfīf served the Toḡloq court at Delhi in various capacities. His work betrays a fond attachment to Fīrūz Shah, since it portrays even his shortcomings as virtues. Its importance lies more in its detailed descriptions of the events, the social customs, the political atmosphere, and the agricultural, commercial, and industrial conditions of the country. Most of the work’s manuscripts, as well as the printed edition, are incomplete. An exception is the copy in the Āṣafīya library, which contains all ninety sections (five qesms, each of which is divided into eighteen moqaddemas). ʿAfīf was also the author of other historical works, none of which is extant (Storey, I/1, pp. 510-11).


The Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi, of Shams Siraj ʿAfif, edited by Maulavi Vilayat Husain, Calcutta, 1888-91 (lacks the last three sections).

H. Lewis, “Biography of Feeroz Shah, Emperor of Delhi, translated from the Persian of Shums-i-Seraj, Ufeef,” Journal of the Archaeological Society of Delhi I, 1849-50, pp. 1-38 (summary of the work).

Elliot, History of India III, pp. 269-373 (including translations of long sections).

Ethé, Cat. Ind. Off, p. 212.

Ivanov, Cat. ASB, p. 111.

Rieu, Pers. Man. I, pp. 241-42.

(N. H. Zaidi)

Originally Published: December 15, 1984

Last Updated: July 28, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. I, Fasc. 6, pp. 566-567

Cite this entry:

N. H. Zaidi, “ʿAFĪF,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 1982, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/afif-sams-seraj-d