VANDEN BERGHE, Louis

(1923-1993), Belgian archeologist who devoted almost all his research to Iran’s history.

 

VANDEN BERGHE, Louis (b. Oostnieuwkerke, West Flanders, 24 December 1923; d. Ghent, 17 September 1993), Belgian archeologist (with Flemish as his mother-tongue) who devoted almost all his research to Iran’s history (FIGURE 1). After his classical studies at Roeselare College in West Flanders, he went on to study history of art and archeology at the Hoger Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis en Oudheidkunde, sectie Oudheid at Ghent University (1944-48), where he obtained his licentie (equivalent to the M.A.). While studying at Ghent, he also took courses at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, where after two years of study he obtained the degree of “candidate” in Oriental Philology and History. In 1949 and 1950, he studied Akkadian, Arabic, and Oriental archeology at the Universities of Amsterdam and Leiden in the Netherlands. In 1950, he obtained his doctorate from Ghent University, receiving the highest distinction and felicitations of the jury for his dissertation on “Painted pottery in Mesopotamia, Iran, and Pakistan from its origins to ca. 2000 B.C.E.,” written in Flemish (878 pp., with more than 8,000 drawings and photographs). Subsequently, part of this work was published, with a French summary, in three issues of the Gentse Bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis (14-16, 1953-56), the former journal of the Higher Institute for History of Art and Archeology at Ghent University.

In 1951 he was appointed as research fellow at the Belgian National Science Foundation, and in the same year he also became the assistant of Professor Louis Speleers, who taught Egyptian and Near Eastern Art and Archeology at Ghent. In 1953, on Speleers’ retirement, Vanden Berghe was appointed as “full time chargé de cours”; in 1957 he was nominated Professor, and in 1965 he obtained the highest grade as “Ordinarius” of the Chair for Near Eastern Art and Archeology. He had quite a heavy teaching load, particularly from 1958 onwards, when the Institute for Oriental Philology and History was established at Ghent. He was co-founder of that institute and was also its first secretary. Later, between 1960 and 1963, he was its director. In 1971, he created a separate unit, “Archeology and History of the Near East,” within the Institute for History of Art and Archeology. Besides his appointments as Professor at Ghent and Brussels, he was also appointed curator in 1966 of the Iran Section at the Royal Museums for Art and History in Brussels.

During his whole career of 36 years, until he had to retire at the age of 65 on 1 October 1989, in keeping with the university regulations, he taught courses on Near Eastern and Egyptian art and archeology, Islamic art, history and culture of ancient Oriental civilizations, and introduction to Persian. Although he taught a general course on Near Eastern Archeology for undergraduates, he concentrated his teaching in the two “license” years exclusively on Iran. During his career, students wrote some 90 M.A. theses and 5 Ph.D. dissertations under his supervision, mainly on Iranian topics. As well as his main appointment at Ghent University, from 1958 he also taught on a part-time basis at the Institut de philologie et d’histoire orientales at the Université libre de Bruxelles, where he took care of the courses on the history of ancient Iran and the history of art and archeology of ancient Iran.

After obtaining his doctorate in 1950, he immediately went to Iran, where he spent the academic year 1950-51. He was the first Belgian student to be granted a research scholarship by the Iranian Government. This trip was his first contact with the Near East, and at the same time it gave a determining direction to his research. From then onwards he concentrated almost all his research on Iran.

During Vanden Berghe’s stay in Iran, André Godard, then director general of the Iranian Archaeological Department, asked him to undertake an archeological survey of the Persepolis plain. In summer 1951, for one and a half months he traveled alone through the southern part of the Marv Dašt plain and undertook small soundings at Tall-e Jāri, Tall-e Moški, and Tall-e Čogā. In the summer of 1952 he returned to Fārs and surveyed the northern parts (second survey). Some soundings were done at Tall-e Qalʿa, Tall-e Kamin, and several other sites. These two surveys allowed him to sketch a chronological chart of prehistoric development in Fārs province. The difficulties of his task were considerable, since he was alone with almost no resources or technical help, and he usually had to travel by bicycle or mule. However, the pottery sequence he established still largely holds. At the same time he not only located unknown prehistoric cultures, but also discovered several other monuments such as ossuaries or short inscriptions in Pahlavi.

Since he was appointed at Ghent in 1953 and necessarily had to prepare his courses, he only returned to Iran in the winter of 1954, where he undertook some excavations from 26 November to 5 December at Ḵorvin, approximately 80 km northwest of Tehran. Due to bad weather and snow, he only excavated 14 tombs of the Early Iron Age.

The third Fārs survey was conducted in the winter of 1955-56, with excavations at Tall-e Teymurān, Tall-e Kamin, and Tall-e Qalʿa. During the fourth Fārs survey (18 May-19 June 1957), Vanden Berghe visited the rock carving at Guyum, which had been discovered by Ernst Herzfeld in 1926. Undoubtedly, the most impressive result of this survey was the discovery of the fire temple of Tang-e Čak Čak, between Rostāq and Furg. Between 23 December 1959 and 24 February 1960, a fifth field trip was undertaken in southern Iran. Again, several Sasanian monuments were discovered. By following the ancient road between Firuzābād and Sirāf, the present-day Bandar-e Ṭāheri on the Persian Gulf coast, he discovered the impressive fire temple complex at Kunār Siāh, with well-preserved architecture (FIGURE 2). A sixth Fārs expedition (18 November 1960-17 January 1961) led to the discovery of four fire temples. However, the most sensational discovery of that season was the freestanding house-like tomb at Buzpar, which resembles the tomb of Cyrus II at Pasargadae, but is smaller in size. (This monument appeared on a Belgian postage stamp in 1971 on the occasion of the 2500-year Celebrations in Iran.) The seventh survey took Vanden Berghe back to Fārs and into eastern Ḵuzestān (29 July-1 October 1962). Again, important monuments and inscriptions were discovered. His stay at Malāmir proved particularly fruitful; he was the first to photograph the Elamite (see ELAM) and Elymaean rock carvings (particularly Hang-e Nowruzi) in that region. During the eighth campaign (14 May-30 August 1964) he traveled on mule through ancient Elymais, in the Baḵtiāri mountains. He visited and recorded all major rock carvings, and discovered two additional ones at Kuh-e Tinā and Kuh-e Ṭarāz. In sum, the eight surveys that he undertook, mainly in Fārs and eastern Ḵuzestān, produced major discoveries of early pottery assemblages, as well as monuments of later date. His publications of this research appeared in various journals (see Bibliography).

The Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels own a major collection of Bronzes of Luristan, which were acquired from 1928 onwards. The scholarly debate over the objects, and the difficulties in establishing a clear chronology of developments in the area of Luristan (Lorestān), undoubtedly prompted Vanden Berghe to embark on a determined search to obtain reliable data on “Luristan Culture.” The only way to do so was to mount an expedition to locate burial grounds and undertake large-scale excavations. The Belgian Ministry of Education provided the necessary funding, but it was only in 1965 that he was able to set out on his first excavations. He had previously made a trip to the Ḥolailān plain in 1959 (with Mme. Yolande Maleki, art collector and Belgian wife of the radiologist at the shah’s court), and witnessed clandestine excavations at Čašma Māhi; he had concluded that the whole of Luristan province was no longer worth excavating, and that no intact sites remained for exploration due to the massive plundering. Therefore, he decided to turn his attention to neighboring Pošt-e Kuh, Ilām province, which he considered as less touched by the devastating activities. No fewer than fifteen expeditions set out under the auspices of Ghent University and the Royal Museums for Art and History at Brussels. The teams he took to the field were limited in number, but generally comprised of one or two assistants, a photographer, and an architect. The difficulty of access to the region at that time obliged the teams to spend two to three months in the field, lacking conveniences and having little contact with the outside world. Transport on roads and tracks was by a gendarme with a four-wheel drive army vehicle allocated by the Iranian Government. Where no vehicle could pass, local mules and drivers were hired. The hired labor sometimes had to walk long distances to reach the excavation sites, and the excavation equipment was limited to the very basics. Although the circumstances were far from ideal, these excavations and soundings undoubtedly provided a wealth of information. Not only was a secure chronology established, but it also became clear that the vast region of the Pošt-e Kuh is far more complex than anticipated. It is evident, particularly by working over the excavation files, that certain areas remain underrepresented. Particularly the southern region of Ābdānān, and the more eastern and northern parts of Badr remain unknown for certain periods. Indeed, most of the excavation work was done in the areas of Aivān, Ilām, and western Badr. Vanden Berghe regularly published preliminary results and some overview articles, particularly in the journal, Iranica Antiqua, and in the more general French monthly, Archeologia. His premature death in 1993 prevented him from producing final reports. However, his successor at Ghent University, Ernie Haerinck, and his former student, Bruno Overlaet, are in the process of producing the final excavation results. By 2004, five volumes had been published (see Bibliography: final reports), and another four to five volumes are needed to complete the work.

During his excavations in Pošt-e Kuh, sites of the Chalcolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages were researched, and 5,000 objects were registered and processed. Only a limited number of typical Luristan Bronzes were discovered in context, a fact which makes it likely that Pošt-e Kuh was situated on the southern edge of the distribution and production areas of these bronzes. However, bronze spiked axes, standards of ramping animals or of the “master of animals” type (FIGURE 3), whetstone handles, maces, and decorated vessels are among the recovered items which are rarely found during controlled excavations. Also the discovery of the Assyrian rock carving at Šekāft-e Golgol was a major result of the continuing efforts. In 1979, the Belgian Luristan Mission came to an end due to the political situation in Iran and the subsequent Iran-Iraq War (1980-88). In any case, deteriorating eyesight would have prevented Vanden Berghe from going on for much longer. Since then, fieldwork has not yet resumed. However, the results of the explorations in Pošt-e Kuh were presented to the larger public in an exhibition in Ghent in 1982, which later traveled to Munich and St. Petersburg.

Vanden Berghe published numerous articles and books on topics dealing with ancient Iran. His fundamental book, L’Archéologie de l’Iran ancien (Leiden, 1959, 2nd ed. 1966), has for years been the basic publication on pre-Islamic art and archeology, for students and scholars alike, as well as for a more general public. Published when Vanden Berghe was young, this book brought him esteem and recognition. Of course, the numerous excavations and other researches in the 1960s and 1970s necessitated a full revision of this monumental publication, and it has to be judged against the background of its time, when only limited research had been done. Vanden Berghe fully realized that it would be impossible to write a new book dealing with all the new information and a steadily rising number of publications. To deal with this problem, he published a Bibliographie analytique de l’archéologie de l’Iran Ancien (Leiden, 1979), followed in 1981 and 1987 by Supplément 1: 1978-1980 and Supplément 2: 1981-1985. This work is continued by E. Haerinck and K. G. Stevens: Supplement 3: 1986-1995, and Supplement 4: 1996-2003 (see Bibliography).

At a time when Iranian archeology was limited to fieldwork by only a few teams, he initiated, together with Roman Ghirshman, the international journal, Iranica Antiqua, in 1961. This leading journal on mainly pre-Islamic Iranian art, archeology and culture in general is still published today.

Additionally, Louis Vanden Berghe published numerous articles on fire temples (an inventory of these monuments was published in Iranica Antiqua 19 in 1984), and on rock carvings, several of which he had discovered himself. In 1975, Vanden Berghe, Erik Smekens, photographer at Ghent University, and the author spent some four months in Iran, visiting and recording all rock carvings known at that time. This exploration, which brought us to remote places such as Shimbar (Šembār) or Tang-e Sarvāk, resulted in a 1983 exhibition in Brussels titled “Reliefs rupestres de l’Iran ancien”; it also traveled to Munich and Graz. In 1985, also as a result of our 1975 visit, he and Klaus Schippmann published the monograph Les reliefs rupestres d’Elymaïde (Iran) de l’ époque parthe. A short time before his death he took the initiative for the international exhibition “Splendeur des Sassanides. L’empire perse entre Rome et la Chine,” on display in 1993 in Brussels.

His work and dedication to Iran’s past brought Louis Vanden Berghe many honors. On 14 November 1959, he received the Sepās distinction by the Ministry of Education in Iran, and on 12 May 1960 he was made Officer of the Iranian Order of Homāyun. The University of Tehran awarded him an honorary doctorate on 12 September 1964. In 1963 he was elected a corresponding member of the Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences, Literature and Fine Arts, becoming a full member in 1968, and its president in 1973. He was also an associated member of the Belgian Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences from 1978 onwards. In addition, he was foreign member of the Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften from 1985, corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, full member of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut from 1962, Fellow of the Explorers Club (New York) from 1980, Honorary Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London from 1980, and from 1986 he was a corresponding member of the Istituto Italiano per il medio ed Estremo Oriente (Ismeo). In 1987 he received the Prix Ghirshman of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris, for his life’s work on Iranian archeology. He was also a member or on the board of several other learned societies such as the Foundation assyriologique Georges Dossin, Societas Iranologica Europaea, La Fondation egyptologique belge Reine Elizabeth, as well as a grantee of the Ancient Persia Fund (in memory of Vladimir Lukonin), London.

Bibliography:

Short reference: Phoenix = Phoenix, Bulletin uitgegeven door het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap Ex Oriente Lux.

Obituaries.

J. Curtis, “Obituary: Professor Louis Vanden Berghe,” Iran 32, 1994, pp. V-VI.

G. Gnoli, “Louis Vanden Berghe. 1923-1993,” East and West 43/1-4, 1993, pp. 317-20.

E. Haerinck, “Biographie du Professeur Louis Vanden Berghe,” in Archaeologia Iranica et Orientalis. Miscellanea in Honorem Louis Vanden Berghe, ed. L. De Meyer and E. Haerinck, Ghent, 1989, I, pp. XII-XLV.

Idem, “In Memoriam Louis Vanden Berghe (1923-1993),” Iranica Antiqua 27, 1993, pp. VIII-XII.

B. Overlaet, “In memoriam Louis Vanden Berghe,” Bulletin van de Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis/Bulletin des Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire 64, 1993, pp. 349-51.

Works.

General publications:

“De stand van de archeologische onderzoekingen in Iran,” Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux 13, 1953-54, pp. 347-93. Archéologie de l’Iran Ancien, Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui, vol. 6, Leiden, 1959; 2nd ed., Leiden, 1966; tr., Bāstānšenāsi-ye Irān-eBāstān, Tehran, 1966; 2nd. ed., Tehran, 1968.

Oud-Iraanse Rotsreliefs/Reliefs rupestres de l’Iran ancien, Brussels, 1983 (with E. Haerinck and E. Smekens). Alt-Iranische Felsreliefs. Ausstellungskatalog des Grazer Stadtmuseums, Graz, 1985.

“Les scènes d’investiture sur les reliefs rupestres de l’Iran ancien: évolution et signification,” in G. Gnoli and L. Lanciotti, eds., Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Memoriae Dicata, Serie Orientale Roma LVI, 3, Rome, 1988, pp. 1511-31.

Surveys and excavations, Fārs:

“Archeologische opzoekingen in de Marv Dasht vlakte (Iran),” Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux 12, 1951-52, pp. 211-20.

“Gozāreš-e gamānazani dar Marv Dašt,” in Gozārešhā-ye bāstānšenāsi, Tehran, 1952, pp. 129-39.

“Monuments récemment découverts en Iran méridional,” Bibliotheca Orientalis 10 1953, pp. 5-8.

“Archeologische navorsingen in de omstreken van Persepolis,” Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux 13, 1953-54, pp. 394-408.

“Reconnaissance archéologique dans le Fars méridional et au Laristan,” in Akten des XXIV. Orientalistenkongresses München 1957, Wiesbaden, 1959, pp. 485-88.

“Gozāreš-e gamānazani va kāvoš dar čand tappa-ye māqabl-e tāriḵ-e Marv Dašt-Ḵafrak-Tavābi va gurestān-e Ḵorvin,” Gozārešhā-ye bāstānšenāsi 4, 1960, pp. 279-331.

“Neuentdeckte archäologische Denkmäler in Süd-Iran,” ZDMG 111/2 (= Akten des XV. Deutschen Orientalistentages Göttingen, 1961), 1961, pp. 410-12.

“Archeologische prospectietochten in onbekende gebieden van Zuid-Iran,” De Brug. Tijdschrift Universiteit Gent 6/1, 1962, pp. 9-33.

“A la découverte des civilisations anciennes dans l’Iran méridional,” Annuaire des amitiés belgo-iraniennes 1, 1963, pp. 5-43.

Surveys and excavations, Ḵorvin:

“Opgravingen te Khorwin, één der oudste necropolen der iraniërs in Iran,” in Handelingen van het 21e Vlaamse Filologencongres, Leuven, 1955, pp. 117-21.

La nécropole de Khurvin, Publication de l’Institut historique et archéologique néerlandais de Stamboul 17, Istanbul, 1964.

“La découverte d’un château-fort du début de l’époque islamique à Puskan (Iran). Survivance d’éléments architecturaux sassanides,” Gentse Bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis en Oudheidkunde 28 1989, pp. 1-85; sep. publ., as Iranica Antiqua. Supplément IV, Ghent, 1990.

Surveys and excavations, Pošt-e Kuh, Luristan, preliminary reports.

(a) 1st and 2nd campaigns, 1965-66; excavations at Tappa Kalwali and Var Kabud:

“Belgische opgravingen in Luristan,” Phoenix 12/2, 1966, pp. 337-52.

“Le mystérieux Luristan livre ses secrets,” in Trésors de l’Iran Ancien, Geneva, 1966, pp. 29-32 (with Y. Maleki).

“Mission archéologique belge en Iran,” Iran. Revue publiée par la Mission du Gouvernement Impérial de l’Iran, auprès des communautés européennes (Brussels) 5, May-June 1966, 3 pp.

“La nécropole de War Kabud ou le déclin d’une civilisation du Bronze,” Archéologia 18, 1967, pp. 48-61.

Het archeologisch onderzoek naar de Bronscultuur van Luristan. Opgravingen in Pusht-i Kuh. I. Kalwali en War Kabud (1965 en 1966 (with French summary), Verhandelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België, Klasse der Letteren 30/4, Brussels, 1968.

(b) 3rd campaign 1967; excavations at Bani Surmah (Sorma) and surveys in the Čavār district:

“Belgische opgravingen en navorsingen in de Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan; 3e campagne: oktober 1967-januari 1968,” Phoenix 14/1, 1968, pp. 109-27.

“La nécropole de Bani Surmah. Aurore d’une civilisation du Bronze,” Archéologia 24, 1968, pp. 52-63.

“Bani Surmah,” Iran 7, 1969, pp. 170-71.

“Ban-e Sorma,” in EIr. III/6, 1988, pp. 664-65.

(c) 4th campaign, 1968; excavations at Kalleh Nisar (Kalla Neṣār) and Sar Kabud; surveys in the district of Ṣāleḥābād:

“Belgische opgravingen in Luristan. Opgravingen en navorsingen in de Pusht-i Kuh. 4e campagne: oktober 1968-januari 1969,” Phoenix 15/2, 1969, pp. 267-84.

“La nécropole de Kalleh Nisar,” Archéologia 32, 1970, pp. 64-73.

“Kalleh Nisar,” Iran 9, 1971, pp. 170-72.

“Excavations in Luristan. Kalleh Nisar,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 3, 1973, pp. 25-56.

“La glyptique de Kalleh Nisar, Pusht-i Kuh-Luristan,” Iranica Antiqua 29, 1994, pp. 9-45 (with A. Tourovets).

(d) 5th campaign, 1969; surveys in the district of Badr at War Kabud Mihr (Var Kabud Mehr), War Pil Mihr (Var Pil Mehr), Tabl Khanah (Ṭabl Ḵāna), Dar Tanha (Dar Tanhā), Khush Qadam (Ḵuš Qadam), Shurabah (Šurāba):

“Belgische opgravingen in Luristan. Archaeologische navorsingen in de Pusht-i Kuh. 5e campagne september-december 1969,” Phoenix 16/2, 1970, pp. 351-66.

“Luristan. Prospections archéologiques dans la région de Badr,” Archéologia 36, 1970, pp. 10-21.

“Pusht-i Kuh Luristan: 1969,” Iran 9, 1971, pp. 175-76.

“Recherches archéologiques dans le Luristan. Cinquième campagne: 1969.

Prospections dans le Pusht-i Kuh central (rapport préliminaire),” Iranica Antiqua 9, 1972, pp. 1-48.

(e) 6th campaign, 1970; excavations at Bard-e Bal; surveys in the district of Ayvān at Darvand, Kazāb, Seh Pā, Imamzadeh Gilan Gharbi (Emāmzāda-ye Gilān-e Ḡarbi):

“La nécropole de Bard-i Bal au Luristan,” Archéologia, 43, 1971, pp. 14-23.

“Recherches archéologiques dans le Pusht-i Kuh/Kavišhā-ye bāstānšenāsi dar Pošt-e Kuh-e Lorestān,” Bastan Chenassi va Honar-e Iran/Revue d’archéologie et d’arts iraniens (Tehran) 6, 1971, pp. 14-43.

“Belgische opgravingen en archeologische navorsingen in Pusht-i Kuh Luristan, 6e campagne: september-december 1970,” Phoenix 18/1-2, 1972, pp. 121-36.

“Recherches archéologiques dans le Luristan, sixième campagne 1970, Fouilles à Bard-i Bal et à Pa-yi Kal. Prospections dans le district d’Aivan (Rapport préliminaire),” Iranica Antiqua 10, 1973, pp. 1-79.

“Bard-e Bal,” in EIr. III/7, 1988, p. 761.

(f) 7th and 8th campaigns, 1971-1972; excavations at Hakalān and Kotal-e Golgol; surveys in central Pušt-e Kuh, districts of Arkavāz, Meyma, and Ābdānān:

“Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan,” Iran 11, 1973, pp. 207-9.

Hakalān: “Le Luristan avant l’âge du Bronze. La nécropole de Hakalan,” Archéologia 57, 1973, pp. 48-58.

“Le Lorestan avant l’âge du Bronze. La nécropole de Hakalan,” in Proceedings of the IInd. Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, Tehran, 1974, pp. 66-79.

“Le Luristan à l’âge du Fer. La nécropole de Kutal-i Gulgul,” Archéologia 65, 1973, pp. 16-29.

Sardant, Taḵt-e Ḵān, Qabr Nahi, and Sarāb Bāḡ: “Le Luristan à l’âge du Bronze. Prospections archéologiques dans le Pusht-i Kuh Central,” Archéologia 63, 1973, pp. 24-36.

(g) 9th campaign, 1973; excavations at Dum Gar Parčina:

“Luristan. La nécropole de Dum Gar Parchinah,” Archéologia 79, 1975, pp. 46-61.

“Fouilles au Lorestan. La nécropole de Dum Gar, Parcineh,” in Proceedings of the IIIrd. Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, 1974, Tehran, 1975, pp. 45-62.

“Pusht-i Kuh,” Iran 14, 1976, pp. 164-66.

(h) 10th and 11th campaigns, 1974-75; excavations at Čamži Muma:

“Mission archéologique dans le Post-e Kuh Lorestan. La nécropole de Camahzi-Mumah 1974,” in Proceedings of the IVth Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, 1975, Tehran, 1976, pp. 337-67.

“La nécropole de Chamzhi Mumah. Une grande fouille de l’âge du fer au Luristan. Iran,” Archéologia 108, 1977, pp. 52-63.

(i) 12th campaign, 1976; excavations at Mir Khair (Ḵayr) and surveys in the district of Mishkhas (Mišḵās):

“La nécropole de Mir Khair au Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan,” Iranica Antiqua 14, 1979, pp. 1-37.

(j) 13th and 14th campaigns 1977-78: excavations at Djub-i Gauhar (Jub-e Gawhar) (1977) and Gul Khanan Murdah (Gul Ḵānān Morda) (1978):

“Des tombes de l’âge du Fer au Luristan. La nécropole de Djub-i Gauhar en Iran,” Archéologia 138, 1980, pp. 32-47.

(k) 15th campaign 1979; survey in Shirvan-Čārdāval:

“Prospections archéologiques dans le district de Shirvan-Chardaval (Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan),” Iranica Antiqua 27, 1992, pp. 1-73 (with A. Tourovets).

Luristan, various publications:

(a) Chronology:

“Excavations in Pusht-i Kuh (Iran). Tombs provide evidence on dating ‘Typical Luristan Bronzes,’” Archaeology 24/3, 1971, pp. 263-71.

“La chronologie de la civilisation des Bronzes au Pusht-i Kuh Luristan,” in Proceedings of the 1st. Annual Symposium of Archaeological Research in Iran, Tehran, 1973, 6 pp.

“La chronologie des Bronzes du Luristan, basée sur les résultats des fouilles belges au Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan,” Bulletin de l’Institut d’Archéologie de l’Université de Cracovie, 1981, Krakow, 1983, pp. 84-104.

“Prospections et fouilles au Pust-i Kuh, Luristan,” Archiv für Orientforschung 331, 1984, pp. 200-09 (with E. Haerinck).

(b) Chalcolithic period:

“Luristan, Pusht-i Kuh au Chalcolithique Moyen (Les nécropoles de Parchinah et de Hakalan),” in Préhistoire de la Mésopotamie. La Mésopotamie préhistorique et l’exploration récente du djebel Hamrin. Colloque international du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Paris 17-19 décembre 1984, Paris, 1987, pp. 91-126.

(c) Bronze Age:

“La construction des tombes au Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan au 3e millénaire avant J.-C.,” Iranica Antiqua 14, 1979, pp. 39-50.

(d) Iron Age:

“Les fibules provenant des fouilles au Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan,” Iranica Antiqua 13, 1978, pp. 35-74.

“Les Bronzes du Luristan de l’âge du Fer III. Résultat des fouilles au Pusht-i Kuh,” in Akten des VII. Internationalen Kongresses für Iranische Kunst und Archäologie, München, 7.-10. September 1976, AMI Ergänzungsband 6, Berlin, 1979, pp. 138-50.

“Les pratiques funéraires de l’âge du Fer III au Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan: les nécropoles “genre War Kabud,” Iranica Antiqua 22, 1987, pp. 201-66.


(e) Exhibitions on Luristan:

Luristan. Vorgeschichtliche Bronzekunst aus Iran, Ausstellungskatalog der Prähistorischen Staatssammlung Band 8, Munich, 1981 (with Chr. Langeraert-Seeuws and G. Zahlhaas).

Luristan. Een vergeten bronskunst uit West-Iran, Ghent, 1982 (with Chr. Langeraert-Seeuws, B. Overlaet, and E. Haerinck).

(f) Miscellaneous:

“Les Bronzes des pasteurs et des cavaliers du Luristan,” Archéologie Vivante (Paris) 1/1, 1968, pp. 102-23 (Eng. and Ger. tr. in Archaeologia Viva (Paris) 1/1, 1968.

“Bronzes: Iran-Luristan, Caucase,” Evocations métallurgiques (Paris) 13, 1973, pp. 69-95 (with R. Joffroy).

“Archeologische missie in Iran,” Bulletin van de Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis, 43st.-44st. jaargang (1972/1973), Brussels, 1974, pp. 191-95.

“Les problèmes relatifs aux Bronzes du Luristan en voie de solution,” Barrasihā-ye tāriḵi 3, 1975, pp. 1-8.

“Archeologische onderzoekingen in Luristan, Iran/Recherches archéologiques au Luristan, Iran,” Esso Magazine, 1977, pp. 25-34.

Pošt-e Kuh, Lorestān, Final publications:

E. Haerinck and B. Overlaet, The Chalcolithic Period. Parchinah and Hakalan, Luristan Excavation Documents I, Brussels, 1996.

Idem, Chamahzi Mumah. An Iron Age III Graveyard, Luristan Excavation Documents II (Acta Iranica 33), Leuven, 1998.

Idem, Djub-i Gauhar and Gul Khanan Murdah. Iron Age III Graveyards in the Aivan Plain, Luristan Excavation Documents III (Acta Iranica 35), Leuven, 1999.

B. Overlaet, The Early Iron Age in the Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan, Luristan Excavation Documents IV (Acta Iranica 40), Leuven, 2003.

E. Haerinck, and B. Overlaet, The Iron Age III Graveyard at War Kabud (Chavar District), Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan, Luristan Excavation Documents V (Acta Iranica 42), Leuven and Dudley, Mass., 2004.

Pre- and proto-history of Iran:

“Quelques vases thériomorphes iraniens,” Artibus Asiae 15, 1952, pp. 233-40.

 

 

“Les ateliers de la céramique peinte chalcolithique en Iran sud-ouest,” Revue archéologique 39, 1952, pp. 1-21.

“De beschilderde ceramiek in Voor-Azië, van de oudste tijden tot ca. 2000 voor onze jaartelling, deel 1: Mesopotamië-Syrië (with French summary),” Gentse bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis 14, 1953, pp. 5-73.

“De beschilderde ceramiek in Voor-Azië, van de oudste tijden tot ca. 2000 voor onze jaartelling, deel 2: Iran (with French summary),” Gentse bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis 15, 1954, pp. 5-84.

“De beschilderde ceramiek in Voor-Azië, van de oudste tijden tot ca. 2000 voor onze jaartelling, deel 2: Iran (vervolg) (with French summary), Gentse bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis 16, 1955-56, pp. 5-54.

“Thema’s uit de oud-Iraanse mythologie op de gouden vaas van Hasanlu (with French summary,” Gentse bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis en Oudheidkunde 18, 1959-60, pp. 11-31.

“Some Ceramic Contributions to a Knowledge of Culture in Prehistoric Iran,” Ceramics and Man, ed. F. R. Matson, New York, 1965, pp. 248-53.

Oud-Iraanse Kunst: Prehistorie, Protohistorie/Art Iranien Ancien: Préhistoire, Protohistoire, Brussels, 1966.

Elamite, Urartian and Achaemenid periods:

“Les reliefs élamites de Malamir,” Iranica Antiqua 3, 1963, pp. 22-39.

“Le tombeau achéménide de Buzpar,” in Vorderasiatische Archäologie. Studien und Aufsätze. Anton Moortgat zum fünfundsechzigsten Geburtstag gewidmet, Berlin, 1964, pp. 243-57.

Urartu. Een vergeten cultuur uit het bergland Armenië, Ghent, 1982 (with L. De Meyer): introd., pp. 15-16; Onderzoek en ontdekking: pp. 17-22; geografische situering: pp. 23-24; religion, pp. 38-43; religious architecture, pp. 52-56; breastplate, belt plaques, pp. 90-96; votive plaques, pp. 97-99; glyptic art, pp. 113-15; catalogue, bibliography, pp. 119-250 (with E. Haerinck).

“Un carquois urartéen,” Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 13 (= Studia Paulo Naster Oblata II. Orientalia Antiqua), Leuven, 1982, pp. 245-57.

“Données nouvelles concernant le relief rupestre élamite de Kurangun,” in Fragmenta Historiae Elamicae (= Mélanges offerts à M.-J. Stève), Paris, 1986, pp. 157-73.

“Le relief rupestre de Gardanah Galumushk, Qir,” Iranica Antiqua 21, 1986, pp. 141-55. “Bozpar,” in EIr. 4/4, 1989, pp. 429-30.

Parthian and Sasanian periods:

(a) General:

“L’héritage parthe dans l’art sasanide,” in Transition Periods in Iranian History (Actes du Symposium de Fribourg-en-Brisgau, 22-24 mai 1985), Studia Iranica, Cahier 5, Paris, 1987, pp. 241-52.

(b) Architecture:

“Récentes découvertes de monuments sassanides dans le Fars,” Iranica Antiqua 1, 1961, pp. 163-98.

“Nouvelles découvertes de monuments du feu d’époque sassanide,” Iranica Antiqua 5, 1965, pp. 128-47.

“Les ruines de Bihisht u Duzakh à Sultanabad,” Iranica Antiqua 8, 1968, pp. 94-105.

“De vuurcultus in Oud-Iran,” in Syllabus. Maandblad voor Wetenschap en Kunsten, The Hague, March 1970, pp. 105-8.

“Les Chahar Taqs du Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan,” Iranica Antiqua 12, 1977, pp. 175-90.

“L’autel du feu de Qanat-i Bagh,” Acta Iranica 23, 2nd ser., vol. 9 (= Orientalia J. Duchesne-Guillemin Emerito Oblata), 1984, pp. 511-18.

“Le Chahar Taq de Qanat-i Bagh (Fars) et l’inventaire des Chahar Taqs en Iran,” Iranica Antiqua 19, 1984, pp. 201-25.

(c) Rock-carvings:

“Het rotsrelief te Guyum in het licht van de hofkunst van de Sassanidische koning Bahram II (with French summary),” Gentse bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis en Oudheidkunde 17, 1957-58, Ghent, 1959, pp. 1-25.

“Le relief parthe de Hung-i Nauruzi,” Iranica Antiqua 3, 1963, pp. 155-68.

“De cultuurprovincie Elymaïs naar nieuwe gegevens,” Handelingen van het XXVe Vlaamse Filologencongres 18-20 April 1964, 1964, pp. 149-53.

De iconografische betekenis van het Sassanidisch Rotsrelief van Sarab-i Qandil, (Iran) (with French summary), Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België: Klasse der Letteren, Jaargang XXXV, no. 1, Brussels, 1973.

“Le relief rupestre sassanide de Sarab-i Qandil (Iran),” in Actes du XXIXe Congrès International des Orientalistes: section Iran Ancien, Paris, 1975, p. 58.

“La découverte d’une sculpture rupestre à Darabgird,” Iranica Antiqua 13, 1978, pp. 135-47.

“Nouvelles interprétations des reliefs rupestres sassanides,” Akkadica 14, 1979, pp. 41-42.

“Lumière nouvelle sur l’interprétation de reliefs sassanides,” Iranica Antiqua 15, 1980, pp. 269-82.

Les reliefs rupestres d’Elymaïde (Iran) de l’époque parthe, Iranica Antiqua Supplément 3, Ghent, 1985 (with K. Schippmann).

“Introduction,” “Historique de la découverte et de la recherche,” and “La sculpture,” in Splendeur des Sassanides. L’empire perse entre Rome et la Chine (224-642), Brussels, Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, 1993, pp. 11-12, 13-18, 71-88.

Royal Museums for Art and History, Brussels:

“Exposition de Bronzes du Luristan aux Musées Royaux (Cinquantenaire) de Bruxelles,” Bibliotheca Orientalis 14/3-4, 1957, p. 187.

Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis te Brussel: Oud-Iran, Brussel, 1967/Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire à Bruxelles: Iran Ancien, Brussels, 1967.

“Oud-Iran”/”Antiquités iraniennes,” in Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis te Brussel: Vooraziatische en Iraanse Oudheden: partim Oud-Iran/Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire à Bruxelles: Galerie de l’Asie Antérieure et de l’Iran Ancien: partim antiquités iraniennes, Brussels, 1967, pp. 15-24.

De Iraanse Kunst in de Belgische Verzamelingen. L’art iranien dans les collections belges, Brussels, 1971 (with A. Destrée-Donckier de Donceel).

“Oud-Iraanse Rotsreliefs-Reliefs rupestres de l’Iran Ancien,” Bulletin van de Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis/Bulletin des Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels, 1985, pp. 239-48.

< div style="margin: 0mm 0mm 0mm 6.25mm; padding: 0mm;">

“Iran” (in Flemish, French, and English), Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis Brussel. Oudheid/Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Bruxelles, Antiquité/The Royal Museum of Art and History, Brussels, Antiquity, Musea Nostra 11, Brussels, 1988, pp. 80-85.

Bibliographies:

(a) Near East:

Bibliographie analytique de l’Assyriologie et de l’Archéologie du Proche-Orient, vol. I, section A: l’archéologie 1954-1955, Leiden, 1956 (with H. Mussche).

Bibliographie analytique de l’Assyriologie et de l’Archéologie du Proche-Orient, vol. I, section Ph.: la philologie 1954-1956, Leiden, 1957 (with L. De Meyer).

Bibliographie analytique de l’Assyriologie et de l’Archéologie du Proche-Orient, vol. II, section A: l’archéologie 1956-1957, Leiden, 1960 (with H. Mussche).

(b) Iran:

Bibliographie analytique de l’archéologie de l’Iran Ancien, Leiden, 1979 (with B. De Wulf and E. Haerinck).

Bibliographie analytique de l’archéologie de l’Iran Ancien. Supplément 1: 1978-1980, Leiden, 1981 (with E. Haerinck).

Bibliographie analytique de l’archéologie de l’Iran Ancien. Supplément 2: 1981-1985, Leuven, 1987 (with E. Haerinck).

Varia:

“L’apport des Iraniens dans les études d’archéologie orientale,” Bibliotheca Orientalis 8/2-3, 1951, pp. 109-11.

“La collection d’intailles de M. Franquet, à Bruxelles,” Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie orientale 45/4, 1951, pp. 161-68.

“Réflexions critiques sur la nature de Dumuzi-Tammuz,” La Nouvelle Clio 6/5-6, 1954, pp. 298-321.

“La divinité-oreille dans les religions antiques,” Bulletin de l’Institut historique belge de Rome 29, 1955, pp. 177-97 (with P. Lambrechts).

“De studie van de “Kunstgeschiedenis en de Oudheidkunde van het Nabije Oosten” aan het Hoger Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis en Oudheidkunde aan de Rijksuniversiteit te Gent,” Gents Studentenleven, 11/7, 1956, pp. 7-8.

“L’éducation en Iran,” Bulletin d’informations du Centre pour l’Etude des Problèmes du Monde Musulman Contemporain, 1958, fasc. 7, pp. 16-24.

“Le quatrième congrès de “l’International Association for Iranian Art and Archaeology” tenu aux Etats-Unis du 24 avril au 30 mai 1960,” Iranica Antiqua 1, 1961, pp. 199-201 (with O. Grabar).

“L’Art en l’Anatolie. A propos de l’exposition “L’art des Hittites,” Le Flambeau, 7-8, 1963, pp. 492-506.

“Op het spoor van de Oud-Iraanse beschavingen,” Syllabus. Maandblad voor Wetenschap en Kunsten, The Hague, 1969, pp. 166-69.

“Cyrus le Grand et le Rayonnement de la Civilisation iranienne,” Terre d’Europe 40-41, 1971, pp. 21-36.

“Cyrus le Grand et le Rayonnement de la Civilisation iranienne,” in Hommage universel. Première série: Commémoration Cyrus (= Actes du Congrès de Shiraz 1971 et autres études rédigées à l’occasion du 2500 anniversaire de la fondation de l’empire perse), Acta Iranica 1, 1974, pp. 60-67.

“Archeologie van het Nabije Oosten,” in Vijfentwintig jaar Kunstgeschiedenis en Oudheidkunde, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, Ghent, 1986, pp. 8-11.

“Thirty-Five Years of Archaeological and Historical Research in the Near East (University of Ghent),” in European Student Meeting at the University of Ghent, Belgium, 25-29 October 1987, Ghent, 1987, pp. 4-8.

“Archaeologische expedities in Iran en de Verenigde Arabische Emiraten,” in Gent en haar Rijksuniversiteit in de Wereld, Ghent, 1988, pp. 8-9.

(Ernie Haerinck)

Originally Published: July 20, 2009

Last Updated: July 20, 2009