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  • GERMANY vi. Collections and Study of Persian Art in Germany

    Jens Kröger

    Until the 19th century, Persian works of art entered collections in Germany by mere chance. From then on, works of art from all periods of Persian history were collected systematically to acquire knowledge of the world and to educate and inspire artists and craftsmen. Collecting, exhibiting, and studying Persian art reached an unprecedented scale in the 20th century.

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  • INDIA xxi. INDIAN INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN PAINTING

    Barbara Schmitz

    During the 17th century, the flow of artistic influences between Persia and India reversed. Paintings and drawings in the developed Mughal style of the first quarter of the century were imported to the courts and bazaars of Isfahan.

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  • ŠĀH-NĀMA v. ARABIC WORDS

    John Perry

    Moïnfar calculates that the Šāh-nāma contains 706 words of Arabic origin, occurring a total of 8,938 times. The 100 words occurring most frequently account for 60 percent of all occurrences.

  • SALJUQS vi. ART AND ARCHITECTURE

    Lorenz Korn

    Saljuq rule covered neither all of Persia, the easternmost regions being independently ruled by Ḡaznavids and Ḡorids, nor did it constitute a unified state, able to enforce strict and direct control over towns and lands. Several principalities survived or originated under the suzerainty of the Saljuq sultans, while wide rural areas were left to nomadic control.

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  • IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (3). Islamic Period

    cross-reference

    See Supplement.

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 2)

    Ann K. S. Lambton

    The political breakdown of the caliphate in the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries, although disastrous for the finances of the state and for agriculture in ʿErāq-e ʿArab and, perhaps, also in Ḵūzestān and parts of western Persia, did not have ill effects immediately on the economic life of Persia as a whole.

  • ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS ii. Qajar period

    F. Kazemzadeh

    Before the 19th century Anglo-Iranian relations were sporadic. Periods of engagement alternated with decades of disengagement. After the death of Karīm Khan Zand (1193/1779) contacts between Britain and Iran diminished and were maintained with regularity only in the Persian Gulf as the center of government authority moved north.

  • IRAQ i. IN THE LATE SASANID AND EARLY ISLAMIC ERAS

    Michael Morony

    The late Sasanid era. The late Sasanid winter capital was located at the urban complex on the Tigris river called “the cities” (al-Madāʾen) by the Arabs that included Ctesiphon, Aspānpur, Veh-Antioḵ-e Ḵosrow, and Veh-Ardašir.

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  • KARABALGASUN i. The Site

    Toshio Hayashi

    archeological site of a capital of the Uighur Khaghanate (second half of the 8th century to first half of the 9th century). Karabalgasun is located in the Orkhon valley, 320 km west of Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar), 30 km north of Karakorum.

  • Isfahan ix. THE PAHLAVI PERIOD AND THE POST-REVOLUTION ERA

    Habib Borjian

    In the process of consolidating his power in Isfahan, Reza Shah managed to constrain two powerful social groups: the Shiʿite clergy and the Baḵtiāri tribesmen.