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  • KASHAN iv. POPULATION

    Habibollah Zanjani

    In terms of the distribution of population, in line with the general trends in Iran’s demography, the urban population in Kashan has continued to increase, while the rural population has steadily decreased. Such trends have been more significantly felt in Kashan Sub-province than the rest of the country.

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  • INDIA xix. INDIAN LITERARY INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Cross-Reference

    Iranian-Indian literary influences on Persian literature will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • ʿARAB iii. Arab settlements in Iran

    E. L. Daniel

    Arab settlements were critical in making the effects of the conquest long term, rather than transitory, and in facilitating the symbiosis of Iranian and Arab cultures within a mutual Islamic context.

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    W. Kleiss

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES viii. JUDEO-PERSIAN LANGUAGE

    Thamar E. Gindin

    a group of very similar, usually mutually comprehensible, dialects of Persian, spoken or written by Jews in greater Iran over a period of more than a millennium.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (3) Chronological Table

    Ehsan Yarshater

    A chronological table of events. This records major happenings of Iranian pre-history and history from the most ancient times to 2005.

  • ECONOMY vii. FROM THE SAFAVIDS THROUGH THE ZANDS

    Bert Fragner

    The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure.

  • KABUL iii. HISTORY FROM THE 16TH CENTURY TO THE ACCESSION OF MOḤAMMAD ẒĀHER SHAH

    May Schinasi

    Kabul was a small town until the 16th century, when Ẓahir-al-Din Bābor (1483-1530), the first of the Great Mughals, made it his capital.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.1) The Advent of Islam

    Hamid Algar

    Persian acquaintance with Islam began already in the time of the Prophet. Well known is the case of Salmān-e Fārsi, the Persian companion of the Prophet around whom many legends have been spun.

  • CENTRAL ASIA xii. Economy in the 19th-20th Centuries

    Ian Matley

    When the Russians arrived in Central Asia in the 1860s they found a predominantly agrarian economy. The main grain crops were wheat, barley, and sorghum.