Search Results for “hojja”

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    Maria Dakake

    (“proof or argument”), a term used as: (1) a line of argument in debate; (2) designation of the Shiʿite Imams;  (3) an epithet of the Twelfth Imam; (4) a high official in the Ismaʿili missionary activities


    Mahmoud Sadri

    a Shiʿite religious lay association founded in 1953 by the charismatic cleric Shaikh Maḥmud Ḥalabi to defend Islam against the Bahai missionary activities.


    Hamid Algar

    (lit. Proof of Islam), a title awarded to Shiʿite scholars, originally as an honorific but later as a means of indicating their status in the hierarchy of the learned.


    Hamid Algar

    (Ar. Borqoʿī), AYATOLLAH ʿALĪ-AKBAR (b. 1900), religious leader of the postwar period to whom leftist tendencies were imputed and whose name became embroiled in a significant incident in Qom in January, 1953.

  • DAʿĪ

    Farhad Daftary

    he who summons; a term used by several Muslim groups, especially the Ismaʿilis, to designate their propagandists or missionaries.

  • BĀB (1)

    D. M. MacEoin

    “door, gate, entrance,” a term of varied application in Shiʿism and related movements.


    H. Algar

    , AYATOLLAH (1875-1946), a religious scholar known for his forthright opposition to Reżā Shah Pahlavī.


    W. Madelung

    B. SOLAYMĀN (d. 1695-96), Imami Shiʿite scholar and author. The number of his books and treatises is said to have approached seventy-five.


    Farhad Daftary

    Nezāri Ismaʿili dāʿi, author, and poet (15th-16th centuries).


    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Ar. balāḡa), one of the most general terms to denote eloquence in speech and writing. The branches of literary criticism which developed within Muslim civilization became known collectively as the science (ʿelm) or art (ṣenāʿa) of balāḡat.