Search Results for “hafez”

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  • HAFEZ

    Multiple Authors

    Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).

  • HAFEZ xi. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN GERMAN

    Hamid Tafazoli

    The name of Hafez is closely associated with that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in German literature. This is directly attributable to the status Goethe accords Hafez in his West-West-östlicher Divan (1819).

  • HAFEZ x. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN ENGLISH

    Parvin Loloi

    The first poem by Hafez to appear in English was the work of Sir William Jones (1746-94).

  • HAFEZ xii. HAFEZ AND THE VISUAL ARTS

    Priscilla Soucek

    The 16th century constitutes the apex in production for illustrated copies of Hafez’s Divān; they were made in several places for a range of patrons. The largest group of the illustrated Hafez manuscripts was produced in Shiraz, the most impressive among them dating to the 1580s.

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  • HAFEZ v. MANUSCRIPTS OF HAFEZ

    Julie Scott Meisami

    A major concern of 20th-century Hafez scholarship has been the establishment of a reliable text of his poems.

  • HAFEZ vi. PRINTED EDITIONS OF THE DIVĀN OF HAFEZ

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    Printed editions of Hafez’s poems include partial and complete collections, non-critical and critical editions, in lithographic, calligraphic, facsimile, and typeset formats. The first printed edition was commissioned by Richard Johnson of the East India Company and published by Upjohn’s Calcutta press in 1791.

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  • HAFEZ ix. HAFEZ AND MUSIC

    Franklin Lewis

    The poetics of Hafez depends on a sensuality of language and imagery. Smell, taste, texture, color and certainly sound imagery abound. Translations and adaptations from Hafez have repeatedly been set to music of the Western classical music tradition. 

  • HAFEZ viii. HAFEZ AND RENDI

    Franklin Lewis

    Rend, variously translated in English as “rake, ruffian, pious rogue, brigand, libertine, lout, debauchee,” is the very antithesis of establishment propriety.

  • ḤĀFEẒ EṢFAHĀNI

    Parviz Mohebbi

    Mawlānā Moḥammad, known as Moḵtareʿ (inventor), 15th-16th century engineer, summoned by the Timurid court of Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā to construct a clock after a European model.

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  • HAFEZ iv. LEXICAL STRUCTURE OF HAFEZ’S GHAZALS

    D. Meneghini Correale

    Despite limitations, it is nevertheless necessary to base textual criticism on complete and reliable lexico-statistical inventories of Hafez’s ghazals.

  • HAFEZ xiii. - xiv. HAFEZ’S TOMB (ḤĀFEẒIYA)

    Kuros Kamali Sarvestani

    The Hafeziya is located south of the Koran Gate (Darvāza-ye Qorʾān) on the northern edge of Shiraz. It is on the site of the famous Golgašt-e Moṣallā, the pleasure ground often mentioned in the poems of Hafez.

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  • HAFEZ ii. HAFEZ’S LIFE AND TIMES

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    In spite of this enormous popularity and influence, details of his life are extremely sketchy, and the brief references in taḏkeras (anthologies with biographical sketches) are often unreliable or even purely fictitious.

  • HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEW

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Hafez is the most popular of Persian poets. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics.

  • HAFEZ iii. HAFEZ’S POETIC ART

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Perhaps the greatest progress in research on Hafez during the past century has been made in the domain of philology. Critical editions have been published which begin to provide a reliable basis for the study of Hafez’s poetry.

  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ʿAJAM

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    HĀFEẒ-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD, scholar of religion and author, renowned for his ability to write with speed and in an attractive style.

  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ABRU

    Maria Eva Subtelny and Charles Melville

    (d. 1430), author of many historical and historico-geographical works in Persian, which were commissioned by Šāhroḵ, the Timurid ruler of Herat during the first decades of the 15th century.

  • Agar ān tork-e Širāzi

    music sample

  • Sāqi-nāme in Dastgāh Māhur

    music sample

  • BĀBĀ JĀN ḴORĀSĀNI

    Priscilla Soucek

    16th-century calligrapher, poet, and craftsman, also known as Ḥāfeẓ Bābā Jān Torbatī.

  • BORHĀN-AL-DĪN, ḴᵛĀJA ABŪ NAṢR FATḤ-ALLĀH

    F. R. C. Bagley

    a vizier (d. 1358) eulogized by Ḥāfeẓ in two ḡazals (nos. 374 and 478).

  • Hejāz

    music sample

  • Kāleqi, Mey-e nāb

    music sample

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Ḥamdān b. Wahb b. Bešr (d. 902), traditionist and ḥāfeẓ (preserver of the Koranic text).

  • BICKNELL, HERMAN

    Michael C. Hillmann

    (1830-1875), a translator of Ḥāfeẓ. Some of his metered and rhymed translations replicate, or at least giving the impression of, Persian monorhyme patterns.

  • KAMĀL-AL-DIN ḤOSAYN

    Colin Paul Mitchell

    ḤĀFEŻ-E HARAVI, a prominent Safavid calligrapher during the reign of Shah Tˈahmāsp I (r. 1524-76).

  • ʿABDALLĀH, QAVĀM-AL-DĪN

    T. Kuroyanagi

    14th century theologian and faqīh of Shiraz (d. 772/1370).

  • BAYĀNI, JĀR-ALLĀH-ZĀDA

    Tahsin Yazici

    (d. 1597), Shaikh Moṣtafā, a Turkish poet who composed on the ḡazals of Hāfeẓ.

  • DĀNEŠMAND BAHĀDOR

    Peter Jackson

    Mongol com­mander (d. 1306).

  • DEMAŠQ ḴᵛĀJA

    Charles Melville

    third son of the amir Čobān, possibly born in 1300, when his father was on campaign in Damascus.

  • ʿALĪ B. OWAYS

    J. M. Smith, Jr.

    Jalayerid prince usually known as Šāhzāda Shaikh ʿAlī, one of the five sons of Oways I (r. 1356-74).

  • Abu ‘Atā

    music sample

  • TOḤFAT AL-AḤBĀB

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (Gift for friends), a Persian dictionary of the early Safavid period, compiled by Ḥāfeẓ Solṭān-ʿAli Owbahi Heravi in 936/1529-30.

  • FŪŠANJ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town of medieval eastern Khorasan, situated just to the south of the Harīrūd River, and variously described in the sources as being between six and ten farsaḵs to the west-southwest of Herat.

  • DELŠĀD ḴĀTŪN

    Charles Melville

    eldest daughter of the Chobanid Demašq Ḵᵛāja and Tūrsīn Ḵātūn, granddaughter of the Il-khanid sultan Aḥmad Takūdār.

  • Dād

    music sample

  • FARZĀD, MASʿŪD

    Ahmad Karimi Hakkak

    Throughout this period, Farzād wrote poetry, mostly within the classical tradition. In 1942 he published a selection of his poems in a volume entitled Waqtī ke šāʿer būdam (When I was a poet). He had also begun work on a new edition of Ḥāfeẓ’s Dīvān, a task which became a life-long labor.

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  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN NAQQĀŠ

    Priscilla Soucek

    a painter (naqqāš) active in Herat ca. 1419-30, where he was in the employ of the Timurid Bāysonḡor b. Šāhroḵ.

  • EBN AL-JEʿĀBĪ, ABŪ BAKR MOḤAMMAD

    Wilferd Madelung

    (897-966), b. ʿOmar Tamīmī Ḥāfeẓ, traditionist with Shiʿite leanings.

  • Ḥosayni (1)

    music sample

  • Bozorg

    music sample

  • Āvāz-e Dašti

    music sample

  • IJEL

    John Woods

    Timurid prince (1394-1415), the fourth son of Mirānšāh b. Timur. Was named by the conqueror after one of his ancestors.

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Martin McDermott

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Ḥayyān ḤĀFEẒ ANṢĀRĪ (887-979), traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯīn.

  • Dastgāh-e Čahārgāh

    music sample

  • EḴTĪĀR-AL-DĪN

    Maria Eva Subtelny

    the citadel of Herat located on an elevation adjacent to the north wall of the old city and actually consisting of two parts, the stronghold proper—a rectangle of fired brick and a larger area to the west of unfired brick—that were originally buttressed by 25 towers which reflect various periods of construction.

  • IRAQ

    Multiple Authors

    the southern part of Mesopotamia, known in the early Islamic period as del-e Irānšahr (lit. “the heart of the kingdom of Iran”), served as the central province of the Sasanian empire as well as that of the ʿAbbasid caliphate.

  • ČEHEL TANĀN

    Kerāmat-Allāh Afsar

    (“the forty dervishes,” popularly called Čeltan), a minor takīya (monastery) situated in the northeastern section of Shiraz, a short distance north of the tomb of Ḥāfeẓ and south of Haft Tanān (“the seven dervishes”).

  • EMERSON, RALPH WALDO

    John D. Yohannan

    (b. 25 May 1803, Boston; d. 27 April 1882, Concord), distinguished American transcendentalist, philosopher, and poet.

  • ʿEŠQĪ BELGRĀMĪ, SHAH BARKAT-ALLĀH

    Asifa Zamani

    (1659?-1729), Indo-Persian poet and author.

  • ASFEZĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or ASFŌZAR), designation of a district (kūra) and later its chief town in the Herat quarter of Khorasan.

  • EŠQĪ, MOLLĀ BĀBOR

    Jirí Bečka

    b. Hedāyat-Allāh (1792-1863), Central Asian poet writing in Persian.

  • BĀBĀ KUHI

    M. Kasheff

    popular name of Shaikh Abū ʿAbdallāh Moḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿObaydallāh Bākūya Šīrāzī, Sufi of the 10th-11th centuries.

  • GĀZORGĀH

    Lisa Golombek

    a village approximately 2.5 miles northeast of the city of Herat in present-day northwestern Afghanistan at 34°22′ N and 62°14′ E, situated at an elevation of 4,100 feet.

  • Italy x. LIRICA PERSICA

    Daniela Meneghini

    a project set up in 1989 by the School of Persian Literary Studies at Venice University to create a database for Persian lyric verse.

  • COWELL, EDWARD BYLES

    Parvin Loloi

    (1826-1903), polymath, scholar, and translator from Indian languages and Persian.

  • ʿADNĪ, MAḤMŪD PĀŠĀ

    T. Yazici

    (879/1474), Ottoman vizier and poet, better known in Turkish literature by his pen name ʿAdnī.

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀMĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    (472-546/1079-1151), local historian of Herat in the Saljuq period.

  • Menu of Music Samples

    music sample

    a collection of music samples with their related entries on The Encyclopaedia Iranica.

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  • ESKANDAR SOLṬĀN

    Priscilla Soucek

    b. ʿOmar Šayḵ b. Tīmūr (1384-1415), Timurid prince who ruled a succession of cities in western Persia between 1403 and 1415 but is remembered mostly for his cultural patronage.

  • AḤMAD SOLṬĀN AFŠĀR

    R. M. Savory

    Qizilbāš amir in the Safavid service.  

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Peter Jackson and Charles Melville

    (d. 1336), Il-khanid vizier, the son of Rašīd-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh Hamadānī (executed 1318), the celebrated historian and vizier of Ḡāzān Khan.

  • ARPA KHAN

    P. Jackson

    10th Il-khan of Iran (r. 736/1335-36).

  • JAHĀN TIMÜR

    Charles Melville

    recognized briefly as Il-khan in Iraq and Mesopotamia in 1339-40 during the period of the collapse of the Il-khanate.

  • AFŻAL AL-ḤOSAYNĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    painter active during the reign of Shah ʿAbbās II (1052-77/1642-66).

  • BĪḠAMĪ

    William L. Hanaway

    MAWLĀNĀ SHAIKH ḤĀJĪ MOḤAMMAD, oral storyteller of the 8th/14th century, narrator of the romance Dārāb-nāma.

  • ČEGEL

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    (Jekel), name of a Turkish people in Central Asia known in Persian poetry for the extraordinary beauty of their youths.

  • JOWZJĀNI, MIR JUJOK

    R. D. McChesney

    a late 16th-century literary figure given the title malek al-šoʿarāʾ at Balkh by the Shibanid (Šaybānid) ruler there, ʿAbd-al-Moʾmen Khan (r. at Balkh 1583-98).

  • DARJAZĪN

    Parviz Aḏkāʾī

    (or Dargazīn), name of two rural subdistricts (dehestāns) and a village in the Razan district (baḵš) of Hamadān province.

  • KAMĀL PĀŠĀ-ZĀDA, ŠAMS-AL-DIN AḤMAD

    T. Yazici

    (1468-1534), prolific Ottoman scholar, author of several works in and on Persian. A native of Edirne, he studied under the local muftiMollā Loṭfi, and subsequently taught at the madrasas of Edirne, Uskup (Skoplje) and Istanbul.

  • BIDOḴT

    Habib Borjian

    the center of a subdistrict (dehestān) in Gonābād šahrestān in central Khorasan and the seat of the Gonābādi Sufi order.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD vi. ON MYSTICISM AND PERSIAN SUFI POETRY

    Lloyd Ridgeon

    By the turn of the 20th century the Sufi tradition in Iran no longer enjoyed the popularity and following that it attracted in previous centuries.

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD MOSQUE

    Lisa Golombek

    constructed in the early 15th century, the Friday mosque for pilgrims to the tomb of Imam ʿAli al-Reżā in Mašhad, so named after this famous shrine.

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  • AVERY, PETER

    David Blow

    The most important part of Avery’s published works consists of translations of Persian poetry, in particular the ghazals (ḡazal) of Hafez, the Persian poet for whom he felt a special empathy. He began translating some of the ghazals while still a student at SOAS.

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  • ḴALIL SOLṬĀN b. MIRĀNŠĀH b. TIMUR

    Beatrice Forbes Manz

    Timurid ruler (1405-09). He became active in the military on the Indian campaign in 1398-99 and played a prominent part in the seven-year campaign of 1399-1404.

  • BELL, GERTRUDE Margaret Lowthian

    G. Michael Wickens

    (1868-1926), British traveler, private scholar, archeolo­gist, sometime government servant, and a translator of Ḥāfeẓ.

  • HINDU

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Hendu) denotes in Persian an inhabitant of the Indian subcontinent as well as a follower of Hinduism. The stereotype of the Hindu developed into an element of lyrical imagery which had little to do with reality.

  • FĀRYĀBĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN ABU’L-FAŻL ṬĀHER

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    b. Moḥammad, twelfth century Persian poet who used Ẓahīr as his pen name.

  • AḤMAD B. AYYŪB

    A. A. Kalantarian

    7th-8th/13th-14th Azerbaijani architect, one of the best representatives of the architectural school of Naḵǰavān.

  • ʿALĪŠĀH, TĀJ-AL-DĪN

    B. Spuler

    vizier of the two Il-khans Ölǰeytü (r. 703-17/1304-16) and Abū Saʿīd (r. 717-36/1317-35).

  • ECONOMY vi. IN THE TIMURID PERIOD

    Maria E. Subtelny

    The Timurid invasions against the Kartid rulers of Khorasan, which began in 783/1381, caused socioeconomic dislocation and unprecedented wholesale destruction and pillaging of towns, as well as brutal massacres of their populations.

  • BOLBOL “nightingale”

    Hūšang Aʿlam, Jerome W. Clinton

    “nightingale.” i. The bird. ii. In Persian literature. The term bolbol is applied to at least three species of the genus Luscinia (fam. Turdidae). To Persian poets, however, all refer to a single bird, characterized by its sweet  or plaintive song, supposedly sung for its beloved, the rose.

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  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAVĀRIḴ-E ḤASANI

    İlker Evrim Binbaş

    a Timurid universal chronicle up to December 1451-January 1452, with a valuable final section on events in Kerman up to 1453. 

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA, ROKN-AL-DĪN MĪRZĀ

    J. Woods

    Timurid prince (820-65/1417-60).

  • ĀFĪ, ALLĀHYĀR KHAN

    Z. Ahmad

    Poet, son of Nawwāb Amīr-al-dawla, the founder of the state of Tonk (b. 1233/1817-18, d. 21 Ramażān 1278/22 March 1861).

  • DASĀTĪN

    Jean During

    the term for modes in early musical theory, translated into Arabic as aṣābeʿ (fingers) and sometimes also as mawājeb “obligations, laws.”

  • KAMĀL ḴOJANDI

    Paul Losensky

    (ca. 1320-1401), Persian poet and Sufi also known as Shaikh Kamāl.

  • ČANG

    Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Mallāḥ

    In Persian literature, particularly in poetry, the harp kept an important place. In the Pahlavi text on King Ḵosrow and his page the čang player is listed among the finest of musicians. The harp was also one of the instruments played by the inmates of the harem.

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  • TOḠA TIMUR

    Peter Jackson

    (1336-1353), the last of the Mongol Il-Khans of Iran.

  • MOʾAYYED AY-ABA

    Maryam Kamali

    a slave, promoted to to the commander of the army of the Saljuqid king, Sultan Sanjar, who ruled in Nišāpur (r. 1168-74) in his name.

  • FĀRYĀB

    Daniel Balland

    by the 10th century, one of the towns of the Farighunid princes of Gūzgān, vassals of the Samanids. The medieval name was revived when the high governorate (ḥokūmat-e ʿalā) of Maymana was elevated to the rank of province (welāyat). Its cities, besides Maymana, are Andḵūy and Dawlatābād.

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  • JAHĀN-MALEK ḴĀTUN

    Dominic Parviz Brookshaw

    (d. after 1382), Injuid princess, poet, and contemporary of Ḥāfeẓ. The style and quality of her poetry suggest that she was acquainted with famous male contemporaries Ḥāfeẓ and ʿObayd Zākāni.

  • BOSḤĀQ AṬʿEMA

    Heshmat Moayyad

    (d. 1420s), FAḴR-AL-DĪN ḤALLĀJ ŠĪRĀZĪ, satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry.

  • SARGOḎAŠTE-E SAYYEDNĀ

    Farhad Daftary

    title of an anonymous Persian work containing the biography of Ḥasan-e Ṣabbāḥ, the founder of the Nezāri Ismaʿili state of Persia, centered at the mountain fortress of Alamut.

  • HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH FREIHERR von

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (1774-1856), prolific Austrian orientalist, among whose many works is the first ever complete translation of the Divān of Ḥāfeẓ into a Western language.

  • GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG von

    Hamid Tafazoli

    (1749-1832), the most renowned poet of German literature, interested in the East and in Islam.

  • BANĀʾĪ HERAVĪ

    Z. Safa

    (1453-1512), KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ŠĪR-ʿALĪ, noted poet at various courts of Persia and Transoxania.

  • IHĀM

    N. Chalisova

    literally meaning “making one suppose,” a term applied to a rhetorical figure (badiʿ), a kind of play on words based on a single word with a double meaning.

  • ḠANĪ, QĀSEM

    Abbas Milani

    Qasem Gani was a prolific writer and, during his many years abroad, corresponded with several eminent figures of the time. His diaries, notebooks, and letters have been compiled and edited in twelve volumes under the general supervision of his son, Cyrus Ghani.

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  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS ix. Persian Language Teaching in Modern China

    EIr

    Persian has been taught in Muslim schools in China since the 1920s.

  • LILY

    Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami

    (susan in Persian and Arabic), the name of herbaceous and bulbous flowering plants of the lily family, lilies are among the oldest cultivated plants. Persian poets have likened the lily’s petal to the human tongue.