Table of Contents

  • ZOROASTRIAN RITUALS

    Michael Stausberg

    Ritual has been variously theorized in recent decades.  While the category remains elusive, the formative social importance of ritual is by now generally acknowledged even in Zoroastrian studies.

  • ZOROASTRIANISM

    Multiple Authors

    Historical reviews

  • ZOROASTRIANISM i. HISTORICAL REVIEW UP TO THE ARAB CONQUEST

    William W. Malandra

    This article presents an overview of the history of Zoroastrianism from its beginnings through the 9th and 10th centuries CE. Details of different periods and specific issues relating to Zoroastrianism are discussed in the relevant separate entries.

  • ZOROASTRIANISM ii. Historical Review: from the Arab Conquest to Modern Times

    Jamsheed K. Choksy

    As Zoroastrians lost political control of Iran to Arab Muslims in the seventh century, and thereafter Zoroastrians began slowly but steadily adopting Islam, the magi attempted to preserve their religion’s beliefs, traditions, and lore by writing them down.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ZRANKA

    Cross-Reference

    territory around Lake Hāmun and the Helmand river in modern Sistan. See DRANGIANA.

  • ZUR-ḴĀNA

    Houchang E. Chehabi

    (lit. “house of strength”), the traditional gymnasium of urban Persia and adjacent lands.

  • ZURVAN

    Albert de Jong

    ancient Zoroastrian deity of Time.  Although the etymology of the Avestan word causes difficulty, there is consensus over its basic meaning,  “period (of time).”

  • ZURVANISM

    Albert de Jong

    a hypothetical religious movement in the history of Zoroastrianism. The myth of Zurvan is fairly well known from Armenian, Syriac, Greek, and Arabic sources, but it is not to be found in any Zoroastrian source.

  • ZURWĀNDĀD

    Touraj Daryaee

    the eldest son of the grand vizier (wuzurg framādār) Mehr Narseh, who appointed him to the high religious office of chief hērbed.

  • Zār Songs: Vorāra, Yo mama

    music sample