Table of Contents

  • XENOPHON

    Christopher J. Tuplin

    (ca. 430-353 BCE), Greek historian and essayist from Athens, who served among the Greek mercenaries of Cyrus the Younger.

  • XERXES

    Multiple Authors

    name of two Achaemenid rulers and of some later princes.

  • XERXES i. The Name

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the common Greek (Xérxēs) and Latin form (Xerxes, Xerses) of the Achaemenid throne-name which in Old Persian is spelled x-š-y-a-r-š-a. 

  • XIONGNU

    Étienne de la Vaissière

    (Hsiung-nu), the great nomadic empire to the north of China in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, which extended to Iranian-speaking Central Asia and perhaps gave rise to the Huns of the Central Asian Iranian sources.

  • XRAFSTAR

    Cross-Reference

    (Avestan xrafstra-) “evil animals” in Zoroastrianism.  See MAMMALS iii. The Classification of Mammals and the Other Animal Classes according to Zoroastrian Tradition.

  • XVADĀHOY

    Florence Jullien

    founder of a monastery in Beth Ḥāle in the Ḥira region, following the line of Abraham of Kaškar’s reform, which exerted a great influence throughout the area (7th century CE).

  • XᵛĀRƎNAH

    Cross-Reference

    Avestan term (Mid. Pers. xwarrah), conventionally “glory.” See  FARR[AH].

  • XWADĀY-NĀMAG

    Cross-Reference

    ‘Book of lords,” title of a Sasanian-period national history. See  HISTORIOGRAPHY ii. Pre-Islamic Period.

  • XWĒŠKĀRĪH Ī RĒDAGĀN

    Mahnaz Moazami

    (The duty of children), a Pahlavi manual for Zoroastrian children regarding correct behavior.

  • X~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    There are no figures or plates in letter X entries at this time.