Table of Contents

  • WEIGHTS AND MEASURES i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    A. D. H. Bivar

    Evidence for establishing ancient standards is provided by the examination of actual weights surviving from antiquity, and again from the inspection of certain specimens of ingot currency. Of the six surviving, well-preserved Achaemenid weights recorded in the literature and provided with inscriptions, three seem manifestly related to the shekel of Darius, though again marginally low.

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  • WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS

    Ludmila Hanisch

    scholar of Biblical studies, who primarily gained renown as an Old Testament scholar and Semitist.

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  • WERTIME, Theodore

    Roya Arab

    (b. Chambersburg, Pa., 31 August 1919; d. Chambersburg, 8 April 1982), diplomat and scholar, expert on the history of technology in the ancient Middle East.

  • WHEAT

    Cross-Reference

    See GANDOM.

  • WHITE SHEEP DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    A confederation of Turkman tribes who ruled in eastern Anatolia and western Iran until the Safavid conquest in 1501. See AQ QOYUNLU.

  • WIKANDER, Oscar Stig

    Bo Utas; Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    Wikander soon became known as a brilliant young scholar with wide interests and a deep knowledge of many fields. In 1935 and 1936, he and Geo Widengren (1907-1996) were among the members of the Avesta seminars, held by his older compatriot, the professor of Semitic languages at Uppsala University, H. S. Nyberg (1889-1974).

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  • WILD RUE

    Cross-Reference

    See ESFAND.

  • WILD THYME

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀVĪŠAN.

  • WILLIAM OF RUBRUCK

    Peter Jackson

    a Flemish Franciscan missionary who traveled through the lands that the Mongols had conquered in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Asia Minor between 1253 and 1255.

  • WILLOW

    Cross-Reference

    See BĪD.