Table of Contents


    Keith Hitchins

    (1911-1997), Tajik novelist, dramatist, and critic.


    Wolfram Kleiss

    The territory of the ancient kingdom of Urartu extended over the modern frontiers of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the Republic of Armenia. Its center was the Armenian highland between Lake Van, Lake Urmia, and Lake Sevan. It s first mentioned as “Nairi countries” in Assyrian sources in the time of Salmanasser I, 1274 BCE.

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  • URDU

    David Matthews

    National language (qaumī zabān) of Pakistan and one of the fifteen officially recognized languages of India. It is spoken, according to recent censuses made in India and Pakistan, by an estimated 53 million people in the South Asian subcontinent.


    Alexei Savchenko

    town ca. 30 km southeast of Samarkand, Uzbekistan, containing monuments of historical, archeological, and epigraphic significance. Urgut is first mentioned as the location of a monastery of the Church of the East. Finds include wearable crosses of iron, ceramic wares with Christian motifs, a bronze censer,  and fragments of stucco decoration.

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    Lina Yakubova

    a monthly periodical published in Urmia by the Russian Orthodox Church Mission from 1904 to 1914, with one interruption.

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  • Urmia, Lake

    Eckhart Ehlers

    Fluctuations of Lake Urmia’s size and oscillations of its water table are closely connected with the geographical environment of its basin.  Like so many other drainage basins in Iran, Lake Urmia is the center of an internal drainage basin and distinctly separated from other basins by a high mountain environment on all sides. 

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  • UXII


    (Greek Uxioi) “Uxians.”  See IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (2) Pre-Islamic.



    list of all the figure and plate images in the U entries