Table of Contents

  • ṬABAQĀT-E NĀṢERI

    C. E. Bosworth

    an extensive general history composed in Persian by  b. Serāj-al-Din Jowzjāni, who for the first part of his career lived in Ḡur under the Ghurid sultans and latterly in Muslim India under the Moʿezzi or Šamsi Delhi sultans.

  • ṬABARI, ABU JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD B. JARIR

    Elton L. Daniel

    one of the most eminent Iranian scholars of the early Abbasid era, author of a celebrated commentary on the Qorʾān as well as the most important of the classical Arabic historical texts still extant.

  • TABRIZ x. MONUMENTS x(1). The Blue Mosque

    Sandra Aube

    (Pers. Masjed-e kabud), also known as Masjed-e moẓaffariya, built during the rule of the Qarā Qoyunlu dynasty (1351-1469) and completed in 1465. The extant tilework documents artistic connections with contemporary architecture in Timurid Khorasan and in the Ottoman Empire.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TABRIZ v. The city in the 19th century

    James D. Clark

    TTabriz surpassed Isfahan in population early in the nineteenth century to become the most populous city in Iran. The city was centrally situated relative to the three neighboring regions with which most of its trade was conducted and to which people from the province traveled: the Caucasus, eastern Anatolia, and central Iran. 

  • TADAYYON, Sayyed Moḥammad Birjandi

    Hormoz Davarpanah

    (b. Birjand, 1881; d. United States, December 1951), early 20th-century educationist and politician.

  • TAḎKERA-YE NAṢRĀBĀDI

    Mahmoud Fotoohi

    a compilation of short biographical notices on some one thousand poets of the Safavid period.

  • TAḎKERAT al-AWLIĀʾ

    Mohammad Esteʿlami

    (Saints’ Lives), a hagiographic account of the sayings and miraculous deeds (karāmāts) of eminent sufis and other religious figures from the early Islamic centuries.

  • TAḎKERAT al-MOLUK

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    (Memorial for kings), Persian manual from the transitional period between the collapse of the Safavid empire at the end of the reign of Shah Solṭān Ḥosayn (r. 1694-1722) and the early Afghan period in Persia.

  • TAFAŻŻOLI, AḤMAD

    Philippe Gignoux

    On his way back to Iran, Tafazzoli stayed for a few months in Paris, where he conducted research and made acquaintance with Father Jean de Menasce, a noted scholar in Iranian studies, whom he later assisted in his translation of the third book of Dēnkard.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TAFT

    EIr, based on an article submitted by Ali Modarres

    town and district in Yazd province.

  • TAHERIDS

    Elton L. Daniel

    (Pers. Āl-e Ṭāher), name of a prominent family of the early Abbasid period and more particularly a line of governors of Khorasan (821-73) from that family. Many of the Taherids, governors, and lesser officials, in Khorasan and in Iraq, were celebrated patrons of the arts, and adab literature is filled with anecdotes about their largesse and their appreciation of wit, wisdom, and bon mots.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ṬAHMĀSP I

    Colin P. Mitchell

    (1524-1576), second ruler of the Safavid dynasty. His 52-year reign was the longest of all Safavid rulers.

  • TĀJ AL-SALĀṬIN

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    a book in the genre of Mirror for Princes written in Malay by Boḵāri Jawhari (fl. early 17th cent.).

  • TĀJ-al-SALṬANA

    Afsaneh Najmabadi

    (1884-1936), one of the best known daughters of the Qajar king Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96), due to her memoirs (Ḵāterāt), written in 1914, which were first partially published in 1969 and whose authenticity has been disputed.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TAJADDOD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Modernity), a newspaper published as the official organ of the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, of which a total of 202 issues appeared in Tabriz.

  • TAJIK

    Multiple Authors

    i. The Ethnonym: Origins and Application. ii. Tajik Persian. iii. Colloquial Tajiki in Comparison with Persian of Iran.

  • TAJIK i. THE ETHNONYM: ORIGINS AND APPLICATION

    John Perry

    The Tajiks are an Iranian people, speaking a variety of Persian, concentrated in the Oxus Basin, the Farḡāna valley (Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan) and on both banks of the upper Oxus.

  • TAJIK ii. TAJIK PERSIAN

    John Perry

    Tajiki Persian is the variety of New Persian used in Central Asia. From the 1920s it was officially fostered in the USSR as the national literary language of the Tajik SSR (since 1991, the Republic of Tajikistan). It is also spoken in parts of Uzbekistan, notably in the cities of Bukhara and Samarqand.

  • TAJIK iii. COLLOQUIAL TAJIKI IN COMPARISON WITH PERSIAN OF IRAN

    Bahriddin Aliev and Aya Okawa

    Fārsi of Iran (here called “Farsi” for short), Tajiki, and Dari are distinct branches of the Persian language, and within each branch a wide variety of local dialects exist.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TAJIKISTAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    Habib Borjian

    Tajikistan’s leading research institution for coordinating and conducting theoretical and applied research projects.

  • TAJIKISTAN i. STATUS OF ISLAM SINCE 1917

    Muriel Atkin

    Tajikistan’s population, which numbered slightly more than six million in the year 2000, consists overwhelmingly of ethnic groups which have historically been Muslim.

  • TAJIKISTAN v. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS

    Habib Borjian

    The alphabet change to Roman and then to Cyrillic (1928 and 1940) coupled with vernacularization of Tajik Persian, called for independent lexicography in Tajikistan.

  • TAKLAMAKAN

    Alain Cariou

    The Taklamakan stretches over 337,000 square kilometers in the centre of the Tarim basin. The vast depression runs nearly 1,200 km from west to east, and is 400 km wide from north to south. It forms an elliptical, semi-open basin in the Lop Nur marsh.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TAḴT-E SOLAYMĀN

    Dietrich Huff

    outstanding archeological site with substantial Sasanian and Il-khanid ruins in Azerbaijan, between Bijār and Šāhin-dež, about 30 km north-northeast of Takāb. Up to the early Islamic time the geographical name of the place and the region was Šiz.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TAḴTI, Ḡolām-Reżā

    Houchang E. Chehabi

    (b. Tehran, 20 Šahrivar 1309 Š./27 August 1930; d. Tehran, 27 Ordibehešt 1347 Š./7 June 1968), freestyle wrestling champion, and Persia’s most popular athlete of the 20th century.

  • ṬĀLEB

    Cross-Reference

    Poet and physician (d. 1015/1606-07). See ABU ṬĀLEB TABRIZI.

  • ṬĀLEB ĀMOLI

    Paul Losensky

    Persian poet of the early 17th century (b. Mazandaran, ca. 1580; d. India, 1626-7).

  • ṬĀLEBUF, ʿABD-AL-RAḤIM

    Cyrus Masroori

    (1834-1911), intellectual and author of several influential works, including Ketāb-e AḥmadThe fact that the book went through several reprints both inside and outside Iran testifies to its popularity. Its style and design made it a textbook of choice in the modern schools of Tabriz. 


    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TĀLEŠ DISTRICT

    Marcel Bazin

    altogether stretches north from the Safidrud, which cuts through the western Alborz mountains in western Gilān, to the the Araxes-Kura plain in the south of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • ṬĀLEŠ DULĀB

    Cross-Reference

    one of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān.

  • TAʿLIM O TARBIAT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    monthly periodical published by the Ministry of Culture (April 1925-March 1927, April 1934-July 1938). 

  • TALMUD ii. RABBINIC LITERATURE and MIDDLE PERSIAN TEXTS

    Yaakov Elman

    Jews and Persians had coexisted in Mesopotamia, mostly peaceably, for some 700 years by the time that the first generation of prominent Babylonian talmudic rabbis was born in the third quarter of the 2nd century.

  • TALMUD, PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN

    Jacob Neusner

    Persian influence on Judaism through the Babylonian Talmud (Bavli) is by no means negligible. The Bavli is full of Iranian words and motifs.

  • TAMIŠA WALL

    Hamid Omrani Rekavandi and Eberhard W. Sauer

    an at least 11-km-long Sasanian wall west of present-day Sarkālata village in Gorgān, crossing the coastal corridor at the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TANG-E SARVAK

    Ernie Haerinck

    (Gorge of the cypresses), an archeological site in eastern Ḵuzestān province, southwestern Iran. It is located in a gorge in the mountainous area approx. 50 km north of Behbahān. At an altitude of ca. 1200 m, it is only reached after a long climb.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TANNING, RUBBER, AND FOOTWEAR INDUSTRIES

    Willem Floor

    Tanning was an economic activity traditionally practiced all over Iran, not only in the large towns, but also (for local consumption) in small towns and large villages, and it was practiced on a small scale by the nomads.

  • TAQIYA iii. AMONG BABIS AND BAHAIS

    Kamran Ekbal

    Dissimulation of the faith was widespread among Babis and Bahais until the early years of the ministry of Shoghi Effendi (1921-57), when he, in a number of messages starting in 1927, prohibited its practice.

  • TĀRIḴ-E QOM

    Andreas Drechsler

    (The History of Qom), an early local history (comp. 378/988) from medieval Persia by Ḥasan b. Moḥammad Qomi, which has been preserved in an early 9th/15th-century Persian translation.

  • TĀRIḴ-E SISTĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    an anonymous local history in Persian of the eastern Iranian region of Sistān, the region that straddles the modern Iran-Afghanistan border. It forms a notable example of the flourishing genre of local histories in the pre-modern Iranian lands.

  • ṬARZI, MAḤMUD

    May Schinasi

    (1865-1933), writer, journalist, politician, and a prominent figure in Afghanistan in the first quarter of the 20th century. Tarzi was hailed as the "father of journalism" and oversaw the bi-monthly Serāj al-aḵbār, for which he wrote most of the articles, and was a translator of Turkish, an essayist, and a poet.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TAVADIA, JEHANGIR C.

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    Parsi scholar of ancient Iranian languages and Zoroastrianism.

  • TAVALLALI, Fereydun

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    (1919-1985), noted poet and writer. His literary career paralleled the dominant social, political, and literary trends of the middle decades of 20th century Iran.

  • TAʿZIA

    Peter Chelkowski

    a term used for the Shiʿite passion play performed in Persia. It is the sole form of serious drama to have developed in the world of Islam, with the exception of contemporary theater, which was introduced to Islamic countries in the mid-19th century.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • TEA

    Cross-Reference

    See ČĀY.

  • TEHRAN i. A PERSIAN CITY AT THE FOOT OF THE ALBORZ.

    Xavier de Planhol

    At the northern borders of Iran’s arid central plateau, the southern foothills of the Alborz chain, which have the advantage of major precipitations, are particularly suitable for human settlements.

  • TEHRĀNI, Ḥosayn

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1911-1973) well-known master performer of the tonbak.

  • TEKIŠ B. IL ARSLĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , ʿAlāʾ-al-Donyā wa’l-Din Abu’l-Moẓaffar (r. 1172-1200), a ruler of the branch of Khwarazmshahs who descended from the Great Saljuq slave commander (ḡolām) Anuštigin Ḡarčāʾi.

  • TELEGRAPH i. FIRST TELEGRAPH LINES IN PERSIA

    Soli Shahvar

    The initiator of introducing the electric telegraph in Persia was Mirzā Malkom Khan. In 1858 he carried out two successful telegraphic experiments for Nāṣer-al-Din Shah.

  • TENTS in Iran

    Multiple Authors

    A portable dwelling characteristic of certain nomad groups. It consists of a canopy of cloth or skin supported by upright posts and anchored to the ground by means of pegs and ropes.

  • TENTS i. General Survey

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    The most common type of tent in Iran and Afghani­stan is the “black tent” (constructed of bands of woven goat hair stitched together), which is known from Mauritania to India.