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    one of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān, between Ṭāleš Dulāb and Māsāl.


    Christopher P. Thornton

    The Aceramic Neolithic phase spans Levels 2-5 of the Western Tepe. This period is notable for large mud-brick houses with plastered and red-painted floors and well-built fireplaces, some of which appear to have had ritual significance. Amongst these houses there is abundant evidence for lithic tools using both local flint/chert and imported obsidian.

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    Ali Ferdowsi

    (1966, tr. by Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar, as The Patient Stone, 1989), the last, and arguably, the most critically acclaimed work of fiction by Sadeq Chubak.


    Maryam Ekhtiar

    (b. Qučān, Khorasan, date unknown; d. Tabriz, 3 March 1877), celebrated calligrapher and stone carver, as well as poet and author. He lived as a dervish and spent much of his time traveling, with long sojourns in the Ottoman empire and Egypt.

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  • SANJANA, Darab Dastur Peshotan

    Michael Stausberg

    (1857-1931), Zoroastrian head-priest and scholar.

  • SANJAR, Aḥmad b. Malekšāh

    Deborah G. Tor

    Abu’l-Ḥārith, Moʿezz-al-donyā-wa’l-din, Borhān Amir-al-Moʾmenin, first subordinate sultan of Khorasan and then Great Sultan of the Great Saljuq empire.


    William Malandra

    a term in Zoroastrianism sometimes rendered as “savior.” Since the term also occurs frequently in reference to contemporary individuals, a more neutral translation such as “benefactor” or “helper” (Lommel) may be preferred. 


    Paul Losensky

    (Book of the Cupbearer), a poetic genre in which the speaker, seeking relief from his hardships, losses, and disappointments, repeatedly summons the sāqi or cupbearer to bring him wine.

  • Sāqi-nāme in Dastgāh Māhur

    music sample


    Willem Floor

    Saqqā-ḵāna is a term referring to public water dispensers, which were, and in some places still are, a feature of some large institutional buildings in Iran, typically mosques, shrines, and bazaars.

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