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    Rika Gyselen

     Sasanian title that denoted a high military rank and meant  ‘chief of an army, general.’


    Boris A. Litvinsky

    (Av. aršti- ‘spear,’ OPers. aršti ‘throwing weapon’ or ‘javelin’) is mentioned in the Avesta several times.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1820 -1905), German orientalist and scholar of Iranian studies.

  • SPULER, Bertold

    Werner Ende, Bert Fragner, Dagmar Riedel

    As a teenager Spuler lived through the economic and political turmoils of the 1920s following German defeat in World War I. He received a humanist education, with a focus on Latin and Greek, at the Bismarck Gymnasium in Karlsruhe. Spuler easily picked up languages, learning Russian, Polish, Hebrew, French, English, Italian, and Spanish.

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    William W. Malandra

    a major deity (yazata) in Zoroastrianism, whose great popularity reserved a place for him in Iranian Islam as the angel Surōš. In Avestan, the word occurs both as a noun and as a name. Its basic common meaning is “to hear and obey.”





    Gabrielle van den Berg

    Stanzaic verse forms have been part of the corpus of classical Persian poetry from the early stage onwards and have continued to play a role until modern times.  Though the quantity of stanzaic poetry in Persian literature is modest in comparison to other verse forms, a few examples of this genre have obtained widespread fame and an iconic value in Persian culture and society.

  • STARK, FREYA Madeline

    Malise Ruthven

    British travel-writer.  Her 1934 book The Valley of the Assassins and Other Persian Travels belongs to the canon of English travel literature.


    Willem Floor

     In 1927, plans were drawn up to establish smelting works in the north of the country to produce rail tracks domestically.

  • STEIN, (Marc) Aurel

    Susan Whitfield

    , Sir, Hungarian–British archeologist and explorer (b. Pest, Hungary, 26 November 1862; d. Kabul, 28 October 1943).