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M. Ismail Marchinkowski
Along with Sufism, Shiʿite elements too entered Malay-Indonesian Islam, certainly by way of southern India, where it was well represented.
Sasanian title that denoted a high military rank and meant ‘chief of an army, general.’
Boris A. Litvinsky
(Av. aršti- ‘spear,’ OPers. aršti ‘throwing weapon’ or ‘javelin’) is mentioned in the Avesta several times.
(1820 -1905), German orientalist and scholar of Iranian studies.
Werner Ende, Bert Fragner, Dagmar Riedel
As a teenager Spuler lived through the economic and political turmoils of the 1920s following German defeat in World War I. He received a humanist education, with a focus on Latin and Greek, at the Bismarck Gymnasium in Karlsruhe. Spuler easily picked up languages, learning Russian, Polish, Hebrew, French, English, Italian, and Spanish.This Article Has Images/Tables.
William W. Malandra
a major deity (yazata) in Zoroastrianism, whose great popularity reserved a place for him in Iranian Islam as the angel Surōš. In Avestan, the word occurs both as a noun and as a name. Its basic common meaning is “to hear and obey.”
Gabrielle van den Berg
Stanzaic verse forms have been part of the corpus of classical Persian poetry from the early stage onwards and have continued to play a role until modern times. Though the quantity of stanzaic poetry in Persian literature is modest in comparison to other verse forms, a few examples of this genre have obtained widespread fame and an iconic value in Persian culture and society.
British travel-writer. Her 1934 book The Valley of the Assassins and Other Persian Travels belongs to the canon of English travel literature.
In 1927, plans were drawn up to establish smelting works in the north of the country to produce rail tracks domestically.