Table of Contents

  • ṢABĀ, ABU’l-ḤASAN

    Hormoz Farhat

    Born into an aristocratic and affluent family, Abu’l-Ḥasan had the exceptional good fortune of being raised in an environment fostering love of music and arts.  His father, Abu’l-Qāsem Kamāl-al-Salṭana, a medical doctor, was an amateur musician and poet.  He descended from a long line of court physicians, all of whom were known for their artistic talents.

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  • SABALĀN MOUNTAIN

    Eckart Ehlers

    Kuh-e-Sabalān; 4,740 m), the highest and spatially most extended volcano in northwestern Iran.

  • ṢĀBER

    Hasan Javadi

    , MIRZĀ ʿALI-AKBAR ṬĀHERZĀDA (b. Šamāḵi [Shemakha], 30 May 1862; d. Šamāḵi, 12 July 1911), famous Azerbaijani satirist and poet.

  • SABKŠENĀSI

    Matthew Smith

    the title of a book by Malek al-Šoʿarā Moḥammad Taqi Bahār first published in 1942.

  • ŠĀBUHRAGĀN

    Christiane Reck

    (Šāpurāḵān, Šāburāḵān, Šāburḵān), one of the books written by Mani (216-274/7 CE), founder of the Manichean religion, in which he summarized his teaching systematically.

  • ṢĀBUN

    Cross-Reference

    "soap." See SOAP.

  • SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST

    Carlo G. Cereti

    general title of a set of 50 volumes published between 1879 and 1910, all translated into English by some of the leading scholars of the time under the supervision of Friederich Max Müller.

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  • SACRIFICE i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    William W. Malandra

    At least since the publication of the seminal essay by Henri Hubert and Marcel Mauss much of the discussion has been devoted to a search for what essentially defines sacrifice.

  • SADA FESTIVAL

    Anna Krasnowolska

    the most important Iranian winter festival, celebrated by kindling fires.

  • ṢADĀ-YE EṢFAHĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly newspaper published in Isfahan (6 March 1921 to April/May 1944, with lengthy interruptions). 

  • SADEQI, BAHRAM

    Saeed Honarmand

    Sadeqi started writing poetry and prose at a young age and was still in high school when his poems, under the pseudonym “Ṣahbā Meqdāri,” appeared in literary journals of the period. Although well-versed in classical Persian literature and familiar with Persian prosody, he adhered to a free and independent mode of expression.

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  • SAʿDI

    Paul Losensky

    Persian poet and prose writer (b. Shiraz, ca. 1210; d. Shiraz, d. 1291 or 1292), widely recognized as one of the greatest masters of the classical literary tradition.

  • ṢADR

    Willem Floor

    Arabic term used in the Iranian lands mainly to denote an outstanding person (scholar or otherwise); hence it was also applied as a personal title.

  • SADR, BEHJAT

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    pioneer modernist painter and educator, notable in the development of Iranian modern art movement.

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  • ṢĀʾEB TABRIZI

    Paul E. Losensky

    , MIRZĀ M0ḤAMMAD ʿALI (b. Tabriz, ca. 1000/1592; d. Isfahan, 1086-87/1676), celebrated Persian poet of the later Safavid period.

  • SA'EDI, Gholam-Hosayn

    Faridoun Farrokh and Houra Yavari

    (1936-1985), writer, editor, and dramatist; an influential figure in popularizing the theater as an art form, as well as a medium of political and social expression in contemporary Iran.

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  • ŠAFAQ

    Nasserddin Parvin

    a newspaper published in Tabriz, 3 October 1910 to 18 December 1911. It was an organ of the Democrat Party (Ḥezb-e demokrāt), with a strong nationalist orientation.

  • SAFAVID DYNASTY

    Rudi Matthee

    Originating from a mystical order at the turn of the 14th century, the Safavids ruled Persia from 1501 to 1722. 

  • SAFAVID DYNASTY (cont.)

    Rudi Matthee

    Annotated bibliography.

  • SAFFARIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a dynasty of medieval Islamic eastern Iran which ruled from 247/861 to 393/1003.  From a base in their home province of Sistān, the first Saffarids built up a vast if transient military empire, at one point invading Iraq and threatening Baghdad.  

  • SAFIDRUD

    Eckart Ehlers

    With a length of 670 km the Safidrud is the second largest river of Iran.  Its headwaters are located in the Zagros ranges of northwestern Iran in the province of Kordestān.  Originating in the mountain range of the Kuh-e Čehel Čašma, the headwater region is moist and rainy.

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  • SAFINA-YE ḴOŠGU

    Stefano Pello

    An important Indo-Persian taḏkera (collection of biographical notices of poets with anthologies of their verse) of the 18th century, by Bindrāban Dās Ḵošgu.

  • SAFINE-YE SOLAYMANI

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    (“Ship of Solayman”), a Persian travel account of an embassy sent by the Safavid ruler Shah Solayman (r. 1666-94) to Siam in the year 1685.

  • ṢAFJĀHĪ DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See DECCAN.

  • ŠAFT

    Marcel Bazin

    district and small town in southwestern Gilān.

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA iv. Illustrations

    Marianna Shreve Simpson

    It is within the medieval arts of the object, and particularly on portable ceramic and metalwork vessels made in Persia and neighboring regions during the 12th and 13th centuries, that the early history and iconography of Šāh-nāma imagery can be most fully appreciated.

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  • ŠĀH-NĀMA v. ARABIC WORDS

    John Perry

    Moïnfar calculates that the Šāh-nāma contains 706 words of Arabic origin, occurring a total of 8,938 times. The 100 words occurring most frequently account for 60 percent of all occurrences.

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA — EXCURSUS

    Amin Banani

    Essay: “Reflections on Re-reading the Iliad and the Shahnameh” by Amin Banani.

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS iii. INTO ENGLISH

    Parvin Loloi

    Ferdowsi’s epic, the Šāh-nāma, was first introduced to English readers by Sir William Jones, who in his many essays on Oriental poetry, compared Ferdowsi to Homer.

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  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS i. INTO TURKISH

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    Turks have been influenced by the Šāh-nāma since the advent of the Saljuqs in Persia. Their last prince in Persia, Ṭoḡrel III, recited verses from the Šāh-nāma while swinging his mace in battle.

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS ii. INTO GEORGIAN

    Jamshid Sh. Giunshvili

    was translated, not only to satisfy the literary and aesthetic needs of readers and listeners, but also to inspire the young with the spirit of heroism and Georgian patriotism.

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xiii. INTO POLISH

    Anna Krasnowolska

    The first, brief mention of Ferdowsi in Polish was made by Ignacy Krasicki (1735-1801) in his work on poets and poetry, and he included in his collection of Oriental tales two passages originating from the Šāh-nāma.

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xiv. INTO RUSSIAN

    Natalia Chalisova

    The first translation of the Šāh-nāma into Russian dates from 1849, when V. Zhukovski (d. 1852) wrote his poem Rustem and Zorab.

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xv. INTO JAPANESE

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    After ʿOmar Ḵayyām, whose Robāʿiyāt was introduced to Japanese readers around the turn of the 20th century, Ferdowsi was the first Persian poet to attract the attention of Japanese writers.

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  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xvi. INTO SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES

    Claus V. Pedersen

    among the works of classical Persian literature, Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma is the one best known in the Scandinavian countries.

  • SAḤĀB, ʿAbbās

    Firouz Firooznia

    Saḥāb made about seven hundred maps and atlases, many hand-drafted, originals of which are kept in the SGDI’s library. He closely supervised every project from the start to the end. Saḥāb’s devotion to his work and his love for the field made him travel to hundreds of settlement of Iran, sometimes on foot, to collect data.

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  • ŠĀHIN

    Evelin Grassi

    Šams-al-Din Maḵdum (b. Bukhara, 1859; d. Qarši 1894), Bukharan Tajik poet and satirist.

  • ŠAHNĀZI, ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1905-1948) musician and performer of the tār (a plucked long-necked lute).

  • ŠAHNĀZI, ʿAli Akbar

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1897-1984), master musician, renowned teacher, and composer of Persian classical music.

  • ŠAHRBĀNU

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    (lit. “Lady of the Land,” i.e., of Persia), said to be the daughter of Yazdegerd III (r. 632-51), the last Sasanian king.

  • ŠAHRESTĀNĪHĀ Ī ĒRĀNŠAHR

    Touraj Daryaee

    (The Provincial Capitals of Iran), the only major surviving Middle Persian text on geography.

  • ŠAHREWAR

    William W. Malandra

    name of one of the Amahraspandān in Zoroastrianism. This is the Middle Persian form of the name deriving from Av. Xšaθra Vairya, meaning literally “dominion to be chosen” and more freely “choice/desirable/best dominion.”

  • SAIFPOUR FATEMI

    Lotfali Khonji

    journalist, political figure, and university professor.

  • SAIIDO NASAFI, MIROBID

    Keith Hitchins

    (Mir ʿĀbed Sayyedā Nasafi), Tajik poet (d. Bukhara, between 1707 and 1711).

  • ŠAKKI

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a district of eastern Transcaucasia, now within the northwesternmost part of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan, where the modern town of Sheki or Shaki.

  • SALAMIS

    Christopher Tuplin

    island west of Athens and site of a major naval battle in 480 BCE between the Greeks and the Persian fleet of Xerxes I. Salamis was the second of five battles of the Greco-Persian War of 480-79.

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  • SALEMANN, Carl Hermann

    D. Durkin-Meisterernst

    (in Russian: Zaleman, Karl Germanovitsh; 1849-1916, a leading Iranist scholar of his time, specializing in Middle and early Modern Persian. His tenacity and willingness to publish his results quickly contributed greatly to the advancement of the study of the newly found texts from Central Asia, thereby ensuring the very progress that would make some parts of his work obsolete.

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  • SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM

    Andrew Peacock

    dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled much of Anatolia (Rum), ca. 1081-1308.

  • SALJUQS v. SALJUQID LITERATURE

    Daniela Meneghini

    The term ‘Saljuqid literature’is used here to refer to literary works in Persian produced between 432/1040 and 617/1220.

  • SALJUQS vi. ART AND ARCHITECTURE

    Lorenz Korn

    Saljuq rule covered neither all of Persia, the easternmost regions being independently ruled by Ḡaznavids and Ḡorids, nor did it constitute a unified state, able to enforce strict and direct control over towns and lands. Several principalities survived or originated under the suzerainty of the Saljuq sultans, while wide rural areas were left to nomadic control.

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