Table of Contents

  • ROSE WATER

    Cross-Reference

    See GOLĀB.

  • ROSTAM b. Farroḵ-Hormozd

    D. Gershon Lewental

    Sasanian provincial ruler and military commander at the Battle of Qādesiya (mid-630s CE).

  • ROXANE

    Ernst Badian

    the name of several women in the aristocracy of Achaemenid Iran, the most important of whom was the wife of Alexander the Great. She bore him a son, also named Alexander, whom she hoped to gain kingship.

  • RUDĀBA

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam in the Šāh-nāma.

  • RUDBĀR

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    town and district in southwestern Gilān. Rudbār is located on both banks of the Safidrud river at lat 36°51′ N, long 49°25′ E, at an average altitude of 300 m.

  • RUDSAR

    Marcel Bazin

    city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in eastern Gilān.

  • RUḤAFZĀ, SOLAYMĀN

    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1995), master of Persian classical music. He belongs to the first generation of Persian classical musicians who learned musical notation and the second generation to record his music.

  • RUḤAWŻI

    William O. Beeman

    a comic type of traditional folk musical drama in Iran.

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN

    Multiple Authors

    (d. 1273), Persian poet and Sufi philosopher

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN vii. Philosophy

    William C. Chittick

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN viii. Rumi’s Teachings

    Jawid Mojaddedi

    His didactic poem, the Maṯnawi and his main prose work, the Fihe mā fihe represent the last two decades of his life, constituting the most substantial sources for his teachings without need for recourse to his many biographies.

  • RUSSIA

    Multiple Authors

    I. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution. II. Iranian-Soviet Relations (1917-1991). III. Travelers in Persia to 1917. IV. Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah.

  • RUSSIA i. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution

    Elena Andreeva

    Prior to the 18th century, Iran and Russia treated each other as equal in their sporadic trade and diplomatic contacts. The fragmentation of Iran during the 18th century encouraged Russian aspirations to establish its domination in the Caucasus and the Caspian.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • RUSSIA ii. IRANIAN-SOVIET RELATIONS (1917-1991)

    N. M. Mamedova

    From the outset, the very first international resolutions of the young Soviet state had an immediate impact on relations with Iran.

  • RUSSIA iii. Russo-Iranian Relations in the Post-Soviet Era (1991-present)

    Clément Therme

    Since the end of the 1980s, Iran and Russia have sought to increase their cooperation in the military, nuclear, oil, and gas sectors. It emerged in the light of Iran’s need to bypass Western restrictions on technology transfers in the nuclear, aviation, and military sectors.

  • RUSSIA iv. TRAVELERS IN PERSIA TO 1917

    Elena Andreeva

    Russian travelers’ reports are a valuable source on the history of Persia and its relationship with Russia.

  • RUSSIA v. RUSSIANS AT THE COURT OF MOḤAMMAD-ʿALI SHAH

    Elena Andreeva

    The presence of Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah (r. 1907-09) reflected Russia’s efforts to improve her competitive position against the British by strengthening her influence over the Qajar rulers.

  • RUSSIA vi. Persian Art Collections in Russia

    Anatol A. Ivanov

    The collection of Iranian art in Russia is kept in the two major cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; some small collections and individual pieces that may be preserved in other towns, but no information about them is available.

  • RUZ-NĀMA-YE RASMI-E DAWLAT-E IRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Official Journal of the Government of Iran), a paper published in Tehran as the official organ of government since 1911.

  • RUZBEHĀN

    Lâle Uluç

    the proper name used in artist signatures in twelve manuscripts with illumination, which are associated with 16th-century Shiraz workshops.

  • RYE

    Hušang Aʿlam

    (čāvdār), Secale cereale L. (fam. Gramineae). The Persian name is probably of Turkish origin.

  • Raqs: Dozala va Tombak

    music sample

  • Reng-e Čahārgāh

    music sample

  • R~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter R entries.