Table of Contents


    Shireen Mahdavi

    (Rišār Khan), the Persian name of Jules Richard (1816-1891), a Frenchman in the service of Persian government as a language instructor at Dār al-Fonun College, court photographer, and translator.  

  • RITTER, Hellmut

    Josef van Ess

    (1892-1971), German scholar of Islamic studies, and particularly of Persian literature and mysticism. His magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele: Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (Leiden 1955) is an encyclopedic manual which guides the reader through the psychology of Islamic mysticism. The book is the best introduction to date into Sufi thought. 

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  • ROBINSON, Samuel

    Parvin Loloi

    (1794-1884), British scholar of Persian, translator, cotton manufacturer, and educationalist.



    See GOLĀB.


    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam in the Šāh-nāma.


    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    town and district in southwestern Gilān. Rudbār is located on both banks of the Safidrud river at lat 36°51′ N, long 49°25′ E, at an average altitude of 300 m.


    Marcel Bazin

    city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in eastern Gilān.


    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1995), master of Persian classical music. He belongs to the first generation of Persian classical musicians who learned musical notation and the second generation to record his music.


    Multiple Authors

    I. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution. II. Iranian-Soviet Relations (1917-1991). III. Travelers in Persia to 1917. IV. Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah.

  • RUSSIA i. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution

    Elena Andreeva

    The relationship between Iran and Russia extends back more than a millennium. Prior to the 18th century, Iran and Russia treated each other as equal in their sporadic trade and diplomatic contacts. The fragmentation of Iran during the 18th century encouraged Russian aspirations to establish its domination in the Caucasus and the Caspian provinces of Iran.

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