Table of Contents

  • RED DEER

    Eskandar Firouz

    Cervus elaphus, in Persian: Marāl and also Gavazn and Gāv-e kuhi. i. Natural history. ii. In Persian art. The red deer ranges from Europe to Northeast Asia, its appearance changing gradually, until, from Central Asia eastward, it becomes quite similar to the North American wapiti.

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  • REDARD, GEORGES

    Gerard Fussman

    Swiss scholar of comparative grammar of the Indo-European languages and Iranian dialectology.

  • REICHELT, HANS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Among Reichelt’s publications are a number of studies on the Indo-European languages in general, especially on Greek and Latin, but the focus of his attention were the Old and Middle Iranian languages, more particularly, Avestan and Sogdian studies. All his work is characterized by his philological acumen.

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  • RESĀLA-YE MADANIYA

    Sen McGlinn

    a treatise of some 130 pages by Abd-al-Baha, internally dated in 1292/1875, which calls on the Iranian people to ‘awake’ and take the steps necessary to modernize the country.

  • REŻWĀNŠAHR

    Marcel Bazin

    small town and sub-provencial unit (šahrestān) in the western part of Gilān Province.

  • RHETORICAL FIGURES

    Natalia Chalisova

    devices of embellishment, tropes, and figures considered as an intrinsic part of literary expression in medieval Persia.

  • RIAHI, MOHAMMAD AMIN

    Moḥammad Esteʿlāmi

    prominent scholar of Persian classical literature, statesman, and professor of Persian language and literature.

  • RICE

    Cross-Reference

    See BERENJ.

  • RISHĀR KHAN

    Shireen Mahdavi

    (Rišār Khan), the Persian name of Jules Richard (1816-1891), a Frenchman in the service of Persian government as a language instructor at Dār al-Fonun College, court photographer, and translator.  

  • RITTER, Hellmut

    Josef van Ess

    (1892-1971), German scholar of Islamic studies, and particularly of Persian literature and mysticism. His magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele: Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (Leiden 1955) is an encyclopedic manual which guides the reader through the psychology of Islamic mysticism. The book is the best introduction to date into Sufi thought. 

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