Table of Contents


    Mohammad Baqir

    19th-century Indian author of Persian works (d. 1268/1851-52).

  • RAʿD

    Nasreddin Parvin

    (Thunder), the name of a newspaper published by Sayyed Żiyāʾ-al-Din Ṭabāṭabāʾi in Tehran, 1913-1921, with interruptions.


    Geert Jan van Gelder

    (d. early 5th/11th cent.), scholar, littérateur, and author of works on Islamic ethics, Qurʾanic exegesis, Islamic theology, and Arabic philology, as well as anthologies.


    Ḡafur Mirzāʾi

    one of the first Persian periodicals published by the Iranian community in the United States after the Iranian revolution of 1979.

  • RAHI


    pen name of prominent 20th century poet and lyricist Mohammad Hasan Mo'ayyeri. See MO'AYYERI, MOHAMMAD HASAN


    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Guide to life), a biweekly magazine published in Tehran, 1940-41.

  • Railroads i. The First Railroad Built and Operated in Persia

    Soli Shahvar

    During the three decades between the 1850s and the 1880s various foreign concerns attempted to introduce railways to Persia, but these did not materialize.

  • RAJʿA

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    (lit.: “return”), theological term that has had many meanings according to the context in which it was professed.

  • RAM, Emad

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1931-2003), composer, vocalist, and flute player.



    old district encompassing eastern Gilān in the 19th century. It became a part of Lāhijān sub-province (šahrestān) in 1937 and was divided between the sub-provinces of Langarud and Rudsar in the 1960s.


    Farhad Daftary

    (1126-1193), one of the most prominent figures in the entire history of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis in Syria. He converted to Ismaʿilism in his youth and went to Alamut to furthur his education on the subject. He played a major role in the regional politics of Syria and succeeded in maintaining the independence of his community under the most adverse circumstances.

  • RASHT i. The City

    Christian Bromberger

    city and district in Gilān province, the capital of Gilān and the largest city along the Caspian coast of Iran.

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  • RASHT ii. The District

    Marcel Bazin

    the largest distirct in the plain of Gilān and the most populated in the whole province. 

  • RAŠN

    William Malandra

    Avestan Rašnu, the deity of the ancient Iranian pantheon who functions as the divine Judge.


    Leon Goldman

    the Middle Persian title given to the twelfth Yašt of the Avesta. It is dedicated to the Zoroastrian deity Rašnu


    Cyrus Alai

    Upon returning to Iran in 1962, Rassekh taught as an assistant professor at the University of Tehran Department of Psychology and Education. She was promoted to the full professorship of clinical psychology, and in 1973 was appointed head of the Department of Psychology and Education, becoming the first woman department head in an Iranian University.

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    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Resurrection) newspaper published 1915-16 in Baghdad a group of Iranian expatriates in Europe, headed by Sayyed asan Taqizāda.


    Peter B. Golden

    a six-language glossary compiled by or prepared for the sixth Rasulid king of Yemen (r. 1363-77).


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    a general of Pharnabazos, the satrap of the Daskylitis (see DASCYLIUM) under Dareios II and Artaxerxes II (see DARIUS iv and ARTAXERXES II).

  • RĀVANDI, Qoṭb-al-Din Saʿid

    Etan Kohlberg

    Imami author, traditionist, and jurist (d. Qom, 14 Šawwāl 573/5 April 1178).