Table of Contents


    Florence Jullien

    East Syrian monk (7th century CE);  the monastery he founded in Ḵuzestān, in the mountains of Šuštar, exercised noteworthy influence on monastic practice in the Persian Gulf area and Fārs, as well as Beth Huzāye, during the 7th century.


    Mohammad Baqir

    19th-century Indian author of Persian works (d. 1268/1851-52).

  • RAʿD

    Nasreddin Parvin

    (Thunder), the name of a newspaper published by Sayyed Żiyāʾ-al-Din Ṭabāṭabāʾi in Tehran, 1913-1921, with interruptions.


    Farindokht Zahedi

    (1939-2007) dramatist, short story writer, university lecturer, and an influential figure in popularizing theatre as an art in modern Iran, whose incorporation of colloquial Persian in his works, has contributed to the preservation of the dialects of the northern provinces.

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    Geert Jan van Gelder

    (d. early 5th/11th cent.), scholar, littérateur, and author of works on Islamic ethics, Qurʾanic exegesis, Islamic theology, and Arabic philology, as well as anthologies.


    Ḡafur Mirzāʾi

    one of the first Persian periodicals published by the Iranian community in the United States after the Iranian revolution of 1979.

  • RAHI


    pen name of prominent 20th century poet and lyricist Mohammad Hasan Mo'ayyeri. See MO'AYYERI, MOHAMMAD HASAN


    Saeid Rezvani

    (1930-2000), modernist poet of 1960s-1990s, among the few of his contemporaries whose poems did not participate in the ideological discourse of the period in search of social justice and freedom, and whose rebellious discontent manifested itself more in his challenging of social norms and codes of behavior.

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    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Guide to life), a biweekly magazine published in Tehran, 1940-41.

  • Railroads i. The First Railroad Built and Operated in Persia

    Soli Shahvar

    During the three decades between the 1850s and the 1880s various foreign concerns attempted to introduce railways to Persia, but these did not materialize.