Table of Contents

  • QADAMGĀH

    R. Boucharlat

    an ancient site at the southeastern tip of the Kuh-e Raḥmat, some 40 km south of the Persepolis. Its Persian name (“place of the footprints”) was explained to the 19th-century visitor as due to “the curious marks in the rocks, which are said to be the foot-prints of Ali’s horse.” The date generally accepted is the Achaemenid or the post-Achaemenid period. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • QĀDESIYA, BATTLE OF

    D. Gershon Lewental

    an engagement during the mid-630s CE in which Arab Muslim warriors overcame a larger Sasanian army and paved the way for their subsequent conquest of Iran. The battle took place at a small settlement on the frontier of Sasanian Iraq.

  • QĀʾENI, Shaikh Moḥammad-ʿAli

    Minou Foadi

    (1860-1924), prominent Bahai apologist and director of the Bahai school in Ashkabad.

  • QAJARS

    Shireen Mahdavi

    : THE QAJAR-PERIOD HOUSEHOLD Qajar society was pluralistic, in the sense that different groups of various social status existed in it.

  • QALA d-ŠRARA

    Eden Naby

    (The voice of truth) was a monthly publication of the mainly French Catholic Lazarist Mission in Urmia and ran from 1897 to 1915.

  • QALʿA-YE DOḴTAR

    Dietrich Huff

    The rocky plateau stretching in an east-west direction above the river bend was fortified against the adjoining mountainside by a traverse wall that ran up from the northern and southern cliffs to a semi-circular bastion on the spine of the crest. There are rubble stonewalls along the northern and southern precipices with fort structures on outcrops.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • QAMAR-AL-MOLUK VAZIRI

    Erik Nakjavani

    (1905-1959), commonly referred to as Qamar, popular, pioneering Persian mezzo-soprano. Qamar’s first formal performance as a vocalist took place at Tehran’s Grand Hotel in 1924. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • QANĀT

    Cross-Reference

    earliest irrigation system in Iran. See KĀRIZ.

  • QANDRIZ, MANSUR

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    Matisse, Picasso, and Persian miniature paintings inspired Qandriz’s early figurative work. He chose, as a critic commented, “mystical symbols to combine traditional and modern elements into his abstract designs.” Imaginary elements and heavenly figures, reminiscent of spiritual quests, are characteristics of Qandriz’s early paintings.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • QĀNUNI, JALĀL

    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1987), master performer of the Persian modal system (dastgāh) and expert in Daštestāni music (folk music from Fārs province).

  • QĀNUNI, RAḤIM

    Houman Sarshar

    Širāzi (1871-1944), innovator, master of Persian classical music, and teacher.

  • QARĀ ḴEṬĀY

    István Vásáry

    western branch of the Mongolic Qitans, who ruled China as the Liao from 907 to 1124.

  • QARABAGH

    Alessandro Monsutti

    (Qarabāḡ), a district (woloswāli) of Ghazni Province in Afghanistan.

  • QARAKHANIDS

    Cross-Reference

    see ILAK-KHANIDS.

  • QĀSEMI-e ḤOSAYNI-e GONĀBĀDI

    Jaʿfar Šojāʿ Keyhāni

    poet and scholar of the Safavid period.

  • QĀSEMLU, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Carol Prunhuber

    Qāsemlu became interested in politics in the early 1940s, when the Allied forces invaded Iran and the nascent Kurdish nationalist movement was revived during the occupation of the two Azerbaijan provinces by the Soviet forces.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • QAŠQĀʾI TRIBAL CONFEDERACY i. HISTORY

    Pierre Oberling

    Like most present-day tribal confederacies in Persia, the Il-e Qašqā ʾi is a conglomeration of clans of different ethnic origins, Lori, Kurdish, Arab and Turkic.

  • QAŠQĀʾI TRIBAL CONFEDERACY ii. LANGUAGE

    Michael Knüppel

    Qašqāʾi is a language of southwestern or Oghuz branch of Turkic languages, spoken in the Iranian provinces of Hamadan and Fārs, especially in the region to the north of Shiraz.

  • QAWĀMI, Ḥosyan

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    (1909-1989), known also as Fāḵtaʾi, a master vocalist of Persia in the second half of the 20th century.

  • QAWL

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    a type of poetry that plays a central role in the religious life of the Yezidis. These hymns are chanted to music on solemn religious occasions.

  • QĀŻI SAʿID QOMI

    Sajjad H. Rizvi

    , Moḥammad-Saʿid b. Moḥammad-Mofid, Shiʿite philosopher, jurist, and mystic of the Safavid period (b. 1049/1640, d. after 1107/1696).

  • QAZI, Mohammad

    Noṣrat-Allāh Żiāʾi

    (1913-1998), noted translator.

  • QEPČĀQ

    Peter B. Golden

    a loosely-held union of Turkic tribes (ca. 1030-1237) deriving from the Kimek state and tribes, who came into western and central Eurasian steppes from the east.

  • QESHM ISLAND

    Daniel T. Potts

    (Jazira-ye Qešm, Ar. Jazira-al-Ṭawila); the largest island (ca. 122 km long, 18 km wide on average, 1,445 sq km) in the Persian Gulf, about 22 km south of Bandar-e ʿAbbās.

  • QEṢṢA-YE SANJĀN

    Cross-Reference

    an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. See PARSI COMMUNITIES i. Early History.

  • QODDUS

    Nosrat Mohammad-Hosseini

    (1822-1849), spiritual title of Moḥammad-ʿAli Bārforuši, a prominent Bābi figure.

  • QODSI MAŠHADI

    Paul Losensky

    , ḤĀJI MOḤAMMAD JĀN (b. Mashad, ca. 1582; d. Lahore, 1646), Persian poet of the first half of the 17th century.

  • QOFS

    C. E. Bosworth

    the Arabised form of Kufiči, lit. “mountain dweller,” the name of a people of southeastern Iran found in the Islamic historians and geographers of the 10th-11th centuries.

  • Qohrud i. Historical Geography

    Habib Borjian

    mountainous river, village, and district, with attractive architectural monuments; on a caravan station from Kashan to Isfahan.

  • QOM i. History to the Safavid Period

    Andreas Drechsler

    The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Its pre-Islamic history can be partially documented.

  • QOM LAKE

    E. Ehlers

    (DARYĀČA-ye QOM, or Qom Basin), also called Daryāča-ye Sāva, one of the interior watersheds in northwestern Persia.

  • QOŠUN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    organ of the Iranian armed forces (qošun, arteš), published in Tehran, 1922-35,  continued as Arteš to 1937.

  • QOṬB-AL-DIN ḤAYDAR ZĀVI

    Tahsin Yazici

    a famous Sufi of Turkish origin.

  • QOṬB-AL-DIN ŠIRĀZI

    Sayyed ʿAbd-Allāh Anwār

    Persian polymath, Sufi, and poet (b. Shiraz, October 1236; d. Tabriz, 7 February 1311).

  • QUAL

    Cross-Reference

    See BELDERČĪN.

  • QUINCE

    Cross-Reference

    See BEH.

  • Q~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter Q entries.