Table of Contents


    Peter B. Golden

    a loosely-held union of Turkic tribes (ca. 1030-1237) deriving from the Kimek state and tribes, who came into western and central Eurasian steppes from the east.


    Daniel T. Potts

    (Jazira-ye Qešm, Ar. Jazira-al-Ṭawila); the largest island (ca. 122 km long, 18 km wide on average, 1,445 sq km) in the Persian Gulf, about 22 km south of Bandar-e ʿAbbās.



    an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. See PARSI COMMUNITIES i. Early History.


    Nosrat Mohammad-Hosseini

    (1822-1849), spiritual title of Moḥammad-ʿAli Bārforuši, a prominent Bābi figure.


    Paul Losensky

    , ḤĀJI MOḤAMMAD JĀN (b. Mashad, ca. 1582; d. Lahore, 1646), Persian poet of the first half of the 17th century.

  • QOFS

    C. E. Bosworth

    the Arabised form of Kufiči, lit. “mountain dweller,” the name of a people of southeastern Iran found in the Islamic historians and geographers of the 10th-11th centuries.

  • Qohrud i. Historical Geography

    Habib Borjian

    mountainous river, village, and district, with attractive architectural monuments; on a caravan station from Kashan to Isfahan.

  • QOM i. History to the Safavid Period

    Andreas Drechsler

    The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Its pre-Islamic history can be partially documented.


    E. Ehlers

    (DARYĀČA-ye QOM, or Qom Basin), also called Daryāča-ye Sāva, one of the interior watersheds in northwestern Persia.


    Nassereddin Parvin

    organ of the Iranian armed forces (qošun, arteš), published in Tehran, 1922-35,  continued as Arteš to 1937.