Table of Contents


    R. Boucharlat

    an ancient site at the southeastern tip of the Kuh-e Raḥmat, some 40 km south of the Persepolis. Its Persian name (“place of the footprints”) was explained to the 19th-century visitor as due to “the curious marks in the rocks, which are said to be the foot-prints of Ali’s horse.” The date generally accepted is the Achaemenid or the post-Achaemenid period. 

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    D. Gershon Lewental

    an engagement during the mid-630s CE in which Arab Muslim warriors overcame a larger Sasanian army and paved the way for their subsequent conquest of Iran. The battle took place at a small settlement on the frontier of Sasanian Iraq.

  • QĀʾENI, Shaikh Moḥammad-ʿAli

    Minou Foadi

    (1860-1924), prominent Bahai apologist and director of the Bahai school in Ashkabad.

  • QAJAR DYNASTY xii. The Qajar-Period Household

    Shireen Mahdavi

     Qajar society was pluralistic, in the sense that different groups of various social status existed in it. It was patrilineal and patriarchal, and residence after marriage was normally patrilocal.


    Eden Naby

    (The voice of truth) was a monthly publication of the mainly French Catholic Lazarist Mission in Urmia and ran from 1897 to 1915.


    Dietrich Huff

    The rocky plateau stretching in an east-west direction above the river bend was fortified against the adjoining mountainside by a traverse wall that ran up from the northern and southern cliffs to a semi-circular bastion on the spine of the crest. There are rubble stonewalls along the northern and southern precipices with fort structures on outcrops.

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    Erik Nakjavani

    (1905-1959), commonly referred to as Qamar, popular, pioneering Persian mezzo-soprano. Qamar’s first formal performance as a vocalist took place at Tehran’s Grand Hotel in 1924. 

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    earliest irrigation system in Iran. See KĀRIZ.


    Hengameh Fouladvand

    Matisse, Picasso, and Persian miniature paintings inspired Qandriz’s early figurative work. He chose, as a critic commented, “mystical symbols to combine traditional and modern elements into his abstract designs.” Imaginary elements and heavenly figures, reminiscent of spiritual quests, are characteristics of Qandriz’s early paintings.

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    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1987), master performer of the Persian modal system (dastgāh) and expert in Daštestāni music (folk music from Fārs province).