Table of Contents

  • PONTUS

    Brian McGing

    a Greek word meaning “sea,” generally taken in the ancient world to refer to the Black Sea— Pontos Euxeinos, or Axeinos (Strabo 1.2.10 C21).

  • POPE, ARTHUR UPHAM

    Noel Siver

    Pope was born on February 7, 1881 in Phenix, Rhode Island where his father Louis Pope was a minister in a local church. He was raised in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Descended from English Puritans who had settled in the Boston area in 1634 Pope remained proud of his New England roots throughout his life.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PORTUGAL i. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE (1500-1750)

    Joao Teles e Cunha

    Portuguese-Persian relations had some importance for both countries during the early Modern Age, coinciding with the rise and fall of the Safavids.

  • Poseidon: in Bactria

    Frank Holt

    Poseidon in Bactria presents the unusual pairing of an Hellenic sea-god with landlocked Central Asia.

  • POŠT-E KUH

    Ernie Haerinck and Bruno Overlaet

    The exploration of Pošt-e Kuh started relatively late in comparison with other regions of Persia and the Near East. Until about 1929, the quasi-autonomous governors (wāli) of Pošt-e Kuh ruled over this region. Major Henry C. Rawlinson was the first European to explore the region.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PREHISTORY OF IRAN: ARTIFICIAL CRANIAL MODIFICATIONS

    Aurelie Daems and Karina Croucher

    Cranial modification is one of the most obvious examples we have from the archaeological record of the active manipulation of the body during life, demonstrating choices to treat the body in particular ways, with implications in terms of the reflection of identity and identity construction.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PROCOPIUS

    Henning Börm

    of Caesarea, Greek historian (born ca. 500, died ca. 560). His description of Sasanian internal affairs and Persian-Roman relations is in part highly useful and reliable, and he is a primary source for the way the elite of the Later Roman Empire looked on the Persians.

  • PROSODY i. MIDDLE PERSIAN

    Gilbert Lazard

    There are remnants left of pre-Islamic poetry within western Middle Iranian languages: fragments of Manichean religious hymns, some poems preserved in the literature of Pahlavi, and poetical pieces in New Persian not following the rules of classical versification.

  • PROSODY ii. New Persian

    Cross-Reference

    The study of poetic metre and of the art of versification, including rhyme, stanzaic forms, and the quantity and stress of syllables. See ʿARUŻ

    See also BALUCHISTAN iiia. Baluchi Poetry.

  • PROTOTHYES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    according to Herodotus 1.103.3 the father of the Scythian king Madýēs, who is said to have gone into battle against the Medes.