Table of Contents

  • PHRAORTES

    I. Medvedskaya

    the second king of the Median dynasty. All information about him is from Herodotus.

  • PHRATAPHERNES

    Ernst Badian

    a member of the highest Persian aristocracy at the end of the Achaemenid period. He probably belonged to one of the Six Families that had helped Darius I gain the throne.

  • PIANO IN PERSIAN MUSIC

    Hormoz Farhat

    The first piano is known to have arrived in Persia as a gift from Napoleon Bonaparte to Fatḥ ʿAli Shah.

  • PILARAM, FARAMARZ

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    (1937-1983), a modernist artist, educator and among the founders of the Saqqā-ḵāna School of Art.

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  • PIR-E ZAN

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a calendar-related legend about an Old Woman who personifies winter.  

  • PÎREMÊRD

    Keith Hitchins

    (1867-1950), pen-name of Tawfiq, son of Maḥmud, son of Ḥamza (in Kurdish: Tewfîq kurî MehmûdʿAḡa kurî Hemze ʿAḡa), Kurdish writer, journalist, and public intellectual.

  • PLANE TREE

    Cross-Reference

    See ČENĀR.

  • PLANTAIN

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀRHANG.

  • PLATTS, JOHN THOMPSON

    Parvin Loloi

    (1830-1904), scholar and teacher of Persian at the University of Oxford. He wrote a widely used Persian grammar and published an edition and an English translation of Saʿdi’s Golestān.

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  • PLUM

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀLŪČA.