Table of Contents

  • PADERY, ETIENNE

    Anne-Marie Touzard

    (b. 1674; fl 1714-1725), Ottoman Greek who served as a translator to the French embassy at Istanbul, and as a French consul at Shiraz.

  • PĀDYĀB

    Ramiyar P. Karanjia

    a Pahlavi word meaning “ritually clean,”.

  • PAHLAVI PAPYRI

    Dieter Weber

    documents written exclusively in Egypt during the Persian (Sasanian) occupation under Ḵosrow II between 619 and 629 CE.

  • PAHLAVI PSALTER

    Philippe Gignoux

    name given to a fragment, consisting of twelve pages written on both sides, of a Middle Persian translation of the Syriac Psalter.

  • PAIRIKĀ

    Siamak Adhami

    a class of female demonic beings in the Avesta, often translated “sorceress, witch, or enchantress.”

  • PALACE ARCHITECTURE

    Dietrich Huff

    The abundant variety of styles in Iranian domestic architecture conceals a basic functional system that has remained unchanged since the Achaemenid period.

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  • PALEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN

    Frank Hole

    The Paleolithic or ‘Old Stone Age’ begins with the first stone tools some 2.5million years ago in Africa, and it ends with the Neolithic or ‘New Stone Age,’ essentially at the beginnings of agriculture.

  • PALM READING

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    (chiromancy or palmistry; Pers. Kaf-bini), a form of physiognomy that deduces personal characteristics from the form of the lines on the subject’s palm.

  • PANJIKANT

    Boris I. Marshak

    (Sogd. Pancyknδ), a Sogdian city, the ruins of which are located in the southern periphery of the present-day city of Panjakent in western Tajikistan. The systematic archeological excavations show that this city, situated on the rim of a high terrace overlooking a fertile, well-irrigated valley, was founded in the 5th century C.E. and was inhabited until the 770s.

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  • PAPER AND PAPERMAKING

    Willem Floor

    Such was the fame of Samarqand paper that the 10th-century text Ḥodud al-ʿālam records rather matter-of-factly that “Samarqand produces paper which is exported all over the world.” This fame lasted throughout the centuries. Samarqand was not the only town in the eastern Iranian lands to become a center of paper production.

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  • PARIḴĀN ḴĀNOM

    Manučehr Pārsādust

    (1548-1578), the second daughter of Shah Ṭahmāsp I, a politically influential and colorful figure at the Safavid court.

  • PARMENIO

    Ernst Badian

    (b. ca. 400 BCE, d. 330 BCE); probably from mountainous Upper Macedonia, he became Philip II’s most successful general.

  • PARSI COMMUNITIES i. EARLY HISTORY

    John R. Hinnells

    The creation of a Parsi settlement in India was the outcome of the migration of Zoroastrian refugees from their original homeland in medieval Islamic Persia.

  • PARSI COMMUNITIES ii. IN CALCUTTA

    Jesse S. Palsetia

    Calcutta became a center of Parsi settlement from the 18th century. Dadabhoy Behramji Banaji is recorded as the first Parsi to have come to Calcutta from Surat in western India in 1767.

  • PASARGADAE

    David Stronach and Hilary Gopnik

    capital city and last resting place of Cyrus the Great (r. 559-530 BCE), located in northern Fārs in the fertile and well-watered Dasht-i Murghab (Dašt-e morḡāb), the site stands 1,900 m above sea level at 30°15’ N and 53°14’ E.

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  • PAUL THE PERSIAN

    Byard Bennett

    writer at the time of the Nestorian Patriarch Ezekiel (567-580 C.E.), well versed in ecclesiastical and philosophical matters.

  • PAYĀM-E MAŠREQ

    David Matthews

    Title of a collection of Persian verse by Muhammad Iqbal.

  • PAYANDEH, ABU’L-QASEM

    Ṣafdar Taqizāda

    (1908/1911-1984), journalist, translator, and fiction writer.

  • PEARL i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Brigitte Musche

    i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD The oldest find of pearls in Persia comes from Tepe Giyan in Luristan, from levels dated to the mid-second millennium BCE.

  • PEARL ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Daniel T. Potts

    ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD In the Islamic era pearls have been widely used—strung to make necklaces or sewn onto textiles, used to decorate hats, crowns, daggers, and scabbards.

  • PELLIOT, PAUL

    Samuel Lieu

    (1878-1945), French orientalist who particularly contributed to the study of the languages and  history of the diverse religions and cultures of Central Asia.

  • PEPPER

    Cross-Reference

    See FELFEL.

  • PERICLES

    Ernst Badian

    (ca. 495-429 BCE), Athenian politician and commander in the period after the major victories over the forces of Xerxes I.

  • PERIKHANIAN, ANAHIT

    Arthur Ambartsumian

    (1928-2012), scholar of Iranian studies, specializing in Sasanian jurisprudence, history, and society. 


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  • PERSEPOLIS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Ruined monuments of the acropolis of the city of Pārsa, the dynastic center of the Achaemenid Persian kings, located in the plain of Marvdašt, some 57 km northwest of Shiraz.

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  • PERSEPOLIS ELAMITE TABLETS

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    administrative records in Elamite inscribed on clay tablets. Parts of two archives of such tablets were discovered in Persepolis in 1933-34 and 1936-38.

  • PERSIAN AUTHORS OF ASIA MINOR PART 1

    Tahsin Yazıcı (prep. Osman G. Özgüdenlı)

    Several Saljuqs of Rum (Anatolia) chose Iranian names such as Kaykāvus and Kayḵosrov and even made Persian the official language of state and court.

  • PERSIAN AUTHORS OF ASIA MINOR PART 2

    Tahsin Yazıcı (prep. Osman G. Özgüdenlı)

    bibliography of major Persian authors of Asia Minor.

  • PERSIAN GULF i. IN ANTIQUITY

    Daniel T. Potts

    a shallow, epi-continental sea approximately 1,000 km long and 200-350 km wide, narrowing to about 60 km across at the Straits of Hormuz.

  • PERSIAN LANGUAGE i. Early New Persian

    Ludwig Paul

    Early New Persian is the first phase (8th-12th centuries CE) of the Persian language after the Islamic conquest of Iran.

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  • PERSIAN MANUSCRIPTS i. IN OTTOMAN AND MODERN TURKISH LIBRARIES

    OSMAN G. ÖZGÜDENLI

    The Persian manuscripts in the libraries of Istanbul and Anatolia today were collected from four sources: (1) Persian manuscripts written, translated, and copied in Anatolia; (2) those brought into Anatolia by immigrant scholars; (3) those brought by traders; 4) those brought as booty of the wars and conquests of the 16th and 18th centuries.

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  • PERSIS, KINGS OF

    Joseph Wiesehöfer

    the Persian dynasts who between the 2nd century BCE and 3rd century CE ruled as Parthian representatives in Persis, southwestern Iran.

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN i. PRE-ISLAMIC NAMES: GENERAL

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    The system of formation of personal names attested in the Iranian languages to a great extent agrees with that known from most of the other Indo-European languages.

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN ii. AVESTAN NAMES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    In the Avesta at least 400 personal names are attested. The bulk of these names is found in the second part of the Fravardīn Yašt in a litany-like enumeration.

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN iii. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Evidence from the Achaemenid period is considerable, but in authentic sources, the inscriptions of the kings themselves, fewer than fifty names are documented in their Old Persian form.

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN iv. PARTHIAN PERIOD

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    For the Parthian period there is no super-abundance of primary sources written in the official (Middle) Parthian administrative language.

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN v. SASANIAN PERiOD

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    For Sasanian times, priority treatment must be given to the names attested in non-literary, that is, epigraphic sources (in the broadest sense of the word).

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN vi. ARMENIAN NAMES OF IRANIAN ORIGIN

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Linguistic research has documented that the majority of Iranian lexical and other borrowings in Armenian originated in the Parthian language.

  • PERSONAL NAMES, SOGDIAN i. IN CHINESE SOURCES

    Y. Yoshida

    Especially during some hundred years before the An Lushan’s rebellion (755-63 C.E.), when Tang controlled Central Asia, a great many Sogdians were encountered in northern China.

  • PESTS, AGRICULTURAL

    Cyrus Abivardi

    “Pest” refers to any animal or plant causing harm or damage to people or their animals, crops, or possessions, even if it only causes annoyance.

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  • PEUCESTAS

    Ernst Badian

    officer under Alexander the Great on his campaign in Asia.

  • PEYK-E SAʿĀDAT-E NESWĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    women's magazine published in Rašt , 1927-30.

  • PEYMĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    periodical published (1933-42) in Tehran by Aḥmad Kasravi, historian of the Constitutional Revolution.

  • PHILATELY i. The Postage Stamps of Iran

    Roman Siebertz

    Postage stamps, which were introduced to Iran in 1868, have from the outset served as an object of utility as well as an instrument of official self-representation.

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  • PHILATELY vi. POSTAL HISTORY

    Mano Amarloui

    To stop the spread of certain information, postal matter were, at times, strictly controlled. Not all mail was opened, but special attention was paid to particular senders and addressees. To legitimize censorship, special censor marks were applied on envelopes.

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  • PHILOSOPHY

    Cross-Reference

    see under FALSAFA.

  • PHOENIX MOSQUE

    George Lane

    Over the centuries, the mosque has been mentioned by a variety of very different names.  It is referred to as the Li Bai Ssŭ on some steles and as Wu-lin Gardens on a 13th-century street map.  The name Li Bai Temple is thought to be the oldest designation. 

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  • PHRAORTES

    I. Medvedskaya

    the second king of the Median dynasty. All information about him is from Herodotus.

  • PIANO IN PERSIAN MUSIC

    Hormoz Farhat

    The first piano is known to have arrived in Persia as a gift from Napoleon Bonaparte to Fatḥ ʿAli Shah.

  • PIR-E ZAN

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a calendar-related legend about an Old Woman who personifies winter.