Table of Contents

  • PADERY, ETIENNE

    Anne-Marie Touzard

    (b. 1674; fl 1714-1725), Ottoman Greek who served as a translator to the French embassy at Istanbul, and as a French consul at Shiraz.

  • PĀDYĀB

    Ramiyar P. Karanjia

    a Pahlavi word meaning “ritually clean,”.

  • PAHLAVI PAPYRI

    Dieter Weber

    documents written exclusively in Egypt during the Persian (Sasanian) occupation under Ḵosrow II between 619 and 629 CE.

  • PAHLAVI PSALTER

    Philippe Gignoux

    name given to a fragment, consisting of twelve pages written on both sides, of a Middle Persian translation of the Syriac Psalter.

  • PAIRIKĀ

    Siamak Adhami

    a class of female demonic beings in the Avesta, often translated “sorceress, witch, or enchantress.”

  • PALACE ARCHITECTURE

    Dietrich Huff

    The abundant variety of styles in Iranian domestic architecture conceals a basic functional system that has remained unchanged since the Achaemenid period.

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  • PALEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN

    Frank Hole

    The Paleolithic or ‘Old Stone Age’ begins with the first stone tools some 2.5million years ago in Africa, and it ends with the Neolithic or ‘New Stone Age,’ essentially at the beginnings of agriculture.

  • PALM READING

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    (chiromancy or palmistry; Pers. Kaf-bini), a form of physiognomy that deduces personal characteristics from the form of the lines on the subject’s palm.

  • PANJIKANT

    Boris I. Marshak

    (Sogd. Pancyknδ), a Sogdian city, the ruins of which are located in the southern periphery of the present-day city of Panjakent in western Tajikistan. The systematic archeological excavations show that this city, situated on the rim of a high terrace overlooking a fertile, well-irrigated valley, was founded in the 5th century C.E. and was inhabited until the 770s.

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  • PAPER AND PAPERMAKING

    Willem Floor

    Such was the fame of Samarqand paper that the 10th-century text Ḥodud al-ʿālam records rather matter-of-factly that “Samarqand produces paper which is exported all over the world.” This fame lasted throughout the centuries. Samarqand was not the only town in the eastern Iranian lands to become a center of paper production.

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