Table of Contents


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Old Iranian name, attested only in Greek forms, carried by several personages of the Achaemenid period.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (now OŠNAVIYA), a small town of southwestern Azerbaijan, on the historic route from the Urmia basin toward the plains of northern Iraq.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a district of medieval Islamic Transoxania lying to the east of Samarqand (q.v.) on the upper reaches of the Zarafšān river or Nahr-e Ṣogd.

  • OSSETIC LANGUAGE i. History and description

    Fridrik Thordarson

    According to the 1989 Soviet census, Ossetic is spoken by about 500,000 people; of these, about 330,000 live in North Ossetia and 125,000 in Georgia. These figures should, however, be regarded with some caution as a large part of the Ossetic population is bilingual, also speaking Kabardian, Ingush, or Karachay-Balkar.

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  • OSSETIC LANGUAGE ii. Ossetic Loanwords in Hungarian

    J.T.L. Cheung

    One of the features of Ossetic is the number of lexical traces that show ancient contacts with many, often very diverse, ethnic groups.


    Morton Smith

    legendary mage in classical and medieval literature.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    rural district (rostāq) of northern Khorasan, considered in medieval Islamic times to be an administrative dependency of Nišāpur.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Greek form (Otánēs) of the name OPers. Utāna(DB IV 83 u-t-a-n, rendered as Elam. Hu-ud-da-na, Bab. Ú-mi-it-ta-na-na-ʾ), which often is interpreted as “having good descendants”.

  • ʿOTBI

    C. E. Bosworth

    the family name of two viziers of the Samanids of Transoxiana and Khorasan.


    Ali Anooshahr

    (ca. 961-1036 or 1040), secretary, courtier, and author of the Arabic al-Kitāb al-Yamini, an important dynastic history of the Ghaznavids.