Table of Contents

  • ʿONṢORI

    EIr

    (ca. 961-1039), celebrated Persian poet of the early Ghaznavid period.

  • OPIUM

    Cross-Reference

    See AFYŪN.

  • OPTICS

    Elaheh Kheirandish

    The science of “aspects” or “appearances” (ʿelm al-manāẓer), as optics was called in the Islamic Middle Ages, has a long and impressive history in both Arabic and Persian.

  • ORAHAM, ALEXANDER JOSEPH

    Eden Naby

    (1898-1953), physician and lexicographer, born in the village of Armudāḡāj of the Urmia District, Azerbaijan. He emigrated to the United States and settled in Chicago. He is known for the widely used Assyrian-English Oraham’s Dictionary.

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  • ORANSKIĬ, IOSIF MIKHAILOVICH

    Ivan Steblin-Kamensky

    It is difficult to name a field of Iranian studies which was not included in Oranskii's studies: history of Iranian studies, history of the teaching of Persian and other Iranian languages, the study of the languages themselves, the development of their grammatical structure, etymology, language contacts, dialectology, ethnology, etc.

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  • ORBELI, IOSEF ABGAROVICH

    Karen Yuzbashian

    (1887-1961), orientalist and academician who specialized in Iranian studies, Armenian and Kurdish philology, and archeology.

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  • ORDUBĀD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town on the north bank of the middle course of the Araxes (Aras) river of eastern Transcaucasia, former in Persian territory but now in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • ʿORFI ŠIRAZI

    Paul Losensky

    Persian poet of the latter half of the 16th century (b. Shiraz, 1555; d. Lahore, Aug. 1591).

  • ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

    Kamyar Abdi

    a major research center devoted to the study of the history, languages, and archeology of the ancient Near East, and Egypt.

  • ORMURI

    Cross-Reference

    Language spoken by the Ormur or the Baraki. See AFGHANISTAN vii. Parāči.