Table of Contents

  • OAK

    Cross-Reference

    See BALŪṬ.

  • ʿOBAYD ZĀKĀNI

    Daniela Meneghini

    a Persian poet from the Mongol period (d. ca. 770/1370), renowned above all for his satirical poems.

  • OBOLLA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a port of Lower Iraq during the classical and medieval Islamic periods.

  • OḠUZ KHAN NARRATIVES

    İlker Evrım Bınbaş

    The Tāriḵ-e Oḡuz begins with a short genealogical and topographical introduction connecting the family of Oḡuz to that of Japheth, or Öljey/Oljāy Khan, as he is called in the text, and his son Dib Yāwqu Khan, who lived nomadic life around the lakes of Issyk-Kul and Balkhash.

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  • OIL AGREEMENTS IN IRAN

    Parviz Mina

    (1901-1978): their history and evolution. The history of Iranian oil agreements began with an unprecedented concession granted by Nāṣer-al-Din Shah in 1872 to Baron Julius de Reuter.

  • OIL INDUSTRY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Petroleum and its Products. ii. Iran's Oil and Gas Resources

  • OIL INDUSTRY i. PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS

    A. Badakhshan and F. Najmabadi

    The first requisite for an oil or a gas field is a reservoir: a rock formation porous enough to contain oil or gas and permeable enough to allow their movement through it.

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  • OIL INDUSTRY ii. IRAN’S OIL AND GAS RESOURCES

    A. Badakhshan and F. Najmabadi

    The Iranian oil industry is the oldest in the Middle East. Although the occurrence of numerous seeps in many parts of Iran had been known since the ancient times, the systematic exploration and drilling for oil began in the first years of the 20th century.

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  • OḴOWWAT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Brotherhood), the name of four newspapers and one magazine published in Tabriz, Rašt, Shiraz, Kermānšāh, and Baghdad in the early 1900s.

  • OKRA

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀMĪA.

  • ʿOLAMĀ-YE ESLĀM

    Siamak Adhami

    “The Doctors of Islam,” title given to two medieval Zoroastrian polemical treatises written in Modern Persian.

  • OLEARIUS, ADAM

    Christoph Werner

    (1599-1671), German author, secretary to the Holstein mission to Persia (1635-39), noted for the detailed account of his travels in Russia and Persia.

  • OLIVE TREE

    Willem Floor

    (zaytun). The cultivated olive tree (Olea europaea L, Oleaceae) is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean basin. It is valued for its fruit and oil.

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  • OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1800-1882), German theologian and Oriental scholar, one of the pioneers of Iranian studies in the German-speaking countries. His most important contribution to Iranian studies is his decipherment of the Pahlavi legends of Late Sasanian coins, by which he became almost a second decipherer of the Pahlavī script after Silvestre de Sacy. 

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  • OMAN, SEA OF

    Willem Floor

    the sea, or gulf, which divides Iran and the Arabian peninsula and forms the link between the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea.

  • ONO, Morio

    Ali Ferdowsi

    (1925-2001), eminent Japanese scholar and Iranologist.

  • ONṢOR AL-MAʿĀLI

    C. Edmond Bosworth

    , KAY KĀVUS b. Eskandar b. Qābus, penultimate prince of the Ziyarid dynasty of Tabaristan (Ṭabarestān) and Gilān, in origin Daylamite, which ruled in the 10th-11th centuries.

  • ʿONṢORI

    EIr

    (ca. 961-1039), celebrated Persian poet of the early Ghaznavid period.

  • OPIUM

    Cross-Reference

    See AFYŪN.

  • OPTICS

    Elaheh Kheirandish

    The science of “aspects” or “appearances” (ʿelm al-manāẓer), as optics was called in the Islamic Middle Ages, has a long and impressive history in both Arabic and Persian.