Table of Contents

  • NOWRUZ i. In the Pre-Islamic Period

    Mary Boyce

    Nowruz, “New Day”, is the holiest and most joyful festival of the Zoroastrian year. It is also its focal point, to which all other high holy days relate.

  • NOWRUZ ii. In the Islamic Period

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Nowruz survived while less significant festivals were eclipsed by their Islamic rivals and gradually became abandoned by indifferent Mongol and Turkish rulers or hostile clerical authorities.

  • NOWRUZ iii. In the Iranian Calendar

    Simone Cristoforetti

    The day Hormoz (the first day of any Persian month) of the month of Farvardin is the New Year day in the Persian calendar; at present it coincides with the day of the vernal equinox.


    Habib Borjian

    port city and sub-province in western Māzandarān Province.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Moḥammad Amin Riāḥi

    an anthology of over 4,000 quatrains (robāʾi) by some 300 poets of the 5th to 7th/11th-13th centuries, compiled around the middle of the 7th/13th century.

  • NUḤ (II) B. MANṢUR (I)

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , ABU’L-QĀSEM, Samanid Amir (r. 365-87/976-97), initially in both Transoxania and Khorasan, latterly in Transoxania only.


    Richard F. Strand

    five languages constituting the Nurestâni (Pers. “Nurestāni,” Engl. “Nuristani”) subgroup of the Indo-Iranian language family.  The approximately 130,000 speakers of these languages inhabit Nurestān Province in northeastern Afghanistan and a few adjacent valleys in Pakistan's Chitral District.

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    Vanessa Martin

    (1843-1909), a prominent jurist who campaigned in the Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1909 for constitutionalism according to the šariʿa (canonical laws of Islam)and in its default, preferred absolutism to secularism.

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    Max Klimburg

    (Nurestān), the “Land of Light,” a region to the northeast of Afghanistan, imbedded in the Hindu Kush valleys to the south of its main ridge.

  • NUTS


    See ĀJĪL.

  • NYBERG, Henrik Samuel

    Carlo G. Cereti

    (1889-1974),  Swedish scholar of extremely broad interests, competent in a number of different fields, in both Semitic and Iranian studies.



    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter N entries.