Table of Contents

  • MANICHEAN ART

    Zsuzsanna Gulacsi

    term referring to objects with aesthetic appeal that were made for, and/or used in association with,  the Manichean religion. With the exception of a rock-crystal seal in the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris,  no other item of Manichean art is known from Sasanian Mesopotamia, where the religion had originated.

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  • MANICHEAN SCRIPT

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst

    a right-to-left Semitic script, used by adherents of Manicheism to write texts in Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, Early New Persian, Bactrian, and Uighur (Old Turkish). It is closely related to the Palmyrene script of Aramaic and the Estrangelo script of Syriac; some of its orthographical conventions are also to be found in the Mandaean script.

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  • MANICHEISM i. GENERAL SURVEY

    Werner Sundermann

    Manicheism is the only world religion that has become completely extinct. Its founder, Mani, lived in the third century CE. His religion spread over the continents from the Atlantic to the Chinese Sea.

  • MANICHEISM

    Multiple Authors

    the religion founded by Mani, who regarded his doctrine not as the religion of a region, a state, or a chosen people, but as the completion of the preceding great religions of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism.

  • MANICHEISM ii. THE MANICHEAN PANTHEON

    Werner Sundermann

    In this article, the gods of the Manicheans are considered collectively with regards to their names and functions.

  • MANICHEISM iii. BUDDHIST ELEMENTS IN

    P. Bryder

    Mani, who came to be considered himself to be the seal of the prophets, named Buddha, Zarathustra, and Jesus as his forerunners.

  • MANICHEISM iv. MISSIONARY ACTIVITY AND TECHNIQUE

    Werner Sundermann

    The main primary sources on the beginning of Manichean missionary work are the Cologne Mani Codex and the Kephalaia.

  • MANICHEISM v. IN CHINA

    Sammuel L.C. Lieu

    Manicheism arrived in China in the sixth century, but its history in there was little known until the first decade of the 20th century, when a genuine Manichean text in Chinese was discovered in the Cave of Thousand Buddhas in Tun-huang.

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  • MANJIL

    Marcel Bazin

    town in the Rudbār district, Gilān province. Located at lat 36°44′ N, long 49°24′ E, where the Qezel-owzan (Kızıl-uzun) and Šāhrud rivers unite into the Safidrud.

  • MANNEA

    Ran Zadok

    (Neo-Assyrian Mannāyu), name refering to a region southeast of Lake Urmia centered around modern Saqqez.