Table of Contents


    Saeed Honarmand

    the highly acclaimed and the only published novella by the noted modernist fiction writer Bahram Sadeqi.


    David Durand-Guédy

    the Great Saljuq sultan, during whose reign the Saljuq empire attained its maximum extension.


    Kamyar Abdi

    an important archeological site in the Kor River basin in central Fārs, identified as ancient Anshan, the highland capital of Elam. At nearly 200 ha, Maliān is the largest pre-Achaemenid settlement in Fārs and one of largest archeological sites in Iran.

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    David G. Malick

    (1836-1909), Assyrian writer, educator, and missionary, born in the village of Sipūrḡān in the Urmia plain, Azerbaijan; his work with Americans and Europeans enabled him to travel widely in the Middle East and Europe.

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    Kianoosh Rezania

    a malignant demon in Zoroastrian Pahlavi literature, of pestilential nature and a descendant of the Turanian Brādarōrēš, who killed Zarathustra.


    Nina Garsoian

    the most distinguished family in Early Christian Armenia after the ruling Arsacid house. Their power survived the fall of the dynasty in 428 and began to wane only from the end of the 6th century.


    Multiple Authors

    "warm-blooded" vertebrate animals that have hair and produce milk to nourish their young.

  • MAMMALS i. Mammals of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia

    Steven C. Anderson

    an account of mammals in history, literature, biodiversity, and biogeography.

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  • MAMMALS ii. Species List: Mammals of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia

    Steven C. Anderson

    taxonomy of the mammals of the area, with their common names and range. 

  • MAMMALS iii. The Classification of Mammals and the Other Animal Classes according to Zoroastrian Tradition

    Mahnaz Moazami

    The first written information about certain animals in Iran comes from the Zoroastrian literature, according to which the entire animal kingdom is divided into two classes: “beneficent animals” and “evil animals.”

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