Table of Contents


    Kamyar Abdi

    an important archeological site in the Kor River basin in central Fārs, identified as ancient Anshan, the highland capital of Elam. At nearly 200 ha, Maliān is the largest pre-Achaemenid settlement in Fārs and one of largest archeological sites in Iran.

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    Nina Garsoian

    the most distinguished family in Early Christian Armenia after the ruling Arsacid house. Their power survived the fall of the dynasty in 428 and began to wane only from the end of the 6th century.


    Multiple Authors

    "warm-blooded" vertebrate animals that have hair and produce milk to nourish their young.

  • MAMMALS i. Mammals of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia

    Steven C. Anderson

    an account of mammals in history, literature, biodiversity, and biogeography.

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  • MAMMALS ii. Species List: Mammals of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia

    Steven C. Anderson

    taxonomy of the mammals of the area, with their common names and range. 

  • MAMMALS iii. The Classification of Mammals and the Other Animal Classes according to Zoroastrian Tradition

    Mahnaz Moazami

    The first written information about certain animals in Iran comes from the Zoroastrian literature, according to which the entire animal kingdom is divided into two classes: “beneficent animals” and “evil animals.”

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    F. Thordarson

    (Russian: Dabe Mamsurov), Ossetic author (1909-1966).

  • MAʾMUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , Abu’l-ʿAbbās ʿAbd-Allāh, the seventh Abbasid caliph (r. 813-833), son of Hārun-al-Rašid (d. 809) by a Persian concubine.


    Edmondo F. Lupieri

    an ethnic group (also called Nasoreans or Ar. Ṣābeʾin) belonging to one of the less represented religions of the Near East.


    Kurt Rudolph

    A major characteristic of the Mandaeans is the frequent ritual use of (running) water (for baptisms and ritual purifications); another is the possession of a rich literature