Table of Contents

  • MĀSĀL

    Marcel Bazin

    small town and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in the western part of Gilān Province.  The town is located at lat 37°22′ N, long 49°02′ E.

  • MAŠHAD-E ARDAHĀL

    Habib Borjian

    district and settlement near Kashan, significant for its shrine and conservative traditions.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MASHAYEKHI, MEHRDAD

    Mehrzad Boroujerdi

    (1953-2011), scholar, public intellectual, political activist, whose research was focused primarily on the theoretical shortcomings of the traditional Iranian left and what seemed to him as their inadequate regard for democratic politics.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MASISTES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Greek rendering (Masístēs) of an Old Iranian name *Masišta- (reflected also in Bab. Ma-si-iš-tu4) based on the superlative YAv. masišta-, OPers. maθišta- “greatest, supreme”.

  • MASJED-E SANGI

    Dietrich Huff

    a rock-cut mosque near the ancient site of Dārābgerd.

  • MAŠREQ AL-AḎKĀR

    Moojan Momen

    With regard to the building and design of the Mašreq al-Aḏkārs, Bahāʾ-Allāh states: “Make them as perfect as is possible in the world of being.”  Writing in 1955 to the German Bahais, Shoghi Effendi considered that the Mašreq al-Aḏkār should not be built in ultra-modern style, but be “graceful in outline,” with a “delicate architectural beauty.” 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MASRUR, Hosayn

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1890-1968), novelist, poet, and literary scholar.

  • MASSON, Charles

    Elizabeth Errington

    alias of James Lewis (1800-53), traveler, pioneering archeologist and numismatist, who in 1832-38 produced the first comprehensive archeological records of eastern Afghanistan.

  • MASʿUD (III) B. EBRĀHIM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    recorded on his coins with various other honorifics. He seems to have had generally peaceful relations with his western neighbors, the Great Saljuqs.

  • MAS’UD, MOHAMMAD

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    novelist and editor of the controversial and highly popular newspaper Mard-e emruz.

  • MASʿUD-E SAʿD-E SALMĀN

    Sunil Sharma

    (b. Lahore 1046-49?; d. 1121-22), Persian poet of the later Ghaznavid period. The first major Indo-Persian poet, Masʿud-e Saʿd-e Salmān is best known for the poetry he wrote in prison and in exile.

  • MASʿUDI

    Michael Cooperson

    a tenth-century geographer and historian and an important source of information on pre-Islamic and early Islamic Iran.

  • MĀSULA

    Marcel Bazin

    township and district (baḵš) in western Gilān.

  • MATHESON, Sylvia Anne

    Yolande Crowe

    Matheson was born Sylvia Anne Terry-Smith in London and trained at Wimbledon Technical College. By the age of 16 she started work as a journalist while attending evening classes at the Wimbledon School of Art. She interviewed celebrities such as Charles Laughton, Compton Mackenzie, and P. G. Wodehouse.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MAURICE

    Michael Whitby

    (539-602), Roman emperor, who campaigned in the Balkans (against the Avars) and on the frontier of Sasanian Iran, but gave refuge to Ḵosrow II and helped him to secure the Sasanian throne from Bahrām Čōbin. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MAWDUD B. MASʿUD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty, recorded on his coins with the honorifics Šehāb-al-Din wa’l-Dawla and Qoṭb-al-Mella.

  • MAWLAWI, ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Maʿdumi

    Keith Hitchins

    (1806-1882/83), a leading Kurdish poet of the 19th century who wrote in the Gurāni dialect of southeastern Kurdistan. He benefited from the support of Sufi shaikhs, who were generous patrons of writers and scholars. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MAYMANA, MEYMANA

    cross-reference

    See FĀRYĀB.

  • MAYRHOFER, MANFRED

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    Austrian scholar of comparative Indo-European linguistics and Indo-Iranian studies.

  • MAZAEUS

    Ernst Badian

    member of the highest Achaemenid aristocracy, who had a long career under Artaxerxes III, Darius III, and Alexander of Macedon. At Gaugamela, Mazaeus commanded the right wing of the Persian line with “the best of the cavalry.”

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MAZDAK, MAZDAKISM

    Cross-Reference

    See  IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.1) Overview, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY iv. In the Mazdakite religion, ḴORRAMIS, BĀBAK ḴORRAMĪ, SASANIAN DYNASTY, CLASS SYSTEM iii. In the Parthian and Sasanian Periods, IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (1) Pre-Islamic TimesZOROASTRIANISM i. Historical Review Up To The Arab Conquest.

  • MAẒHAR-E ELĀHI

    Moojan Momen

    (Manifestation of God), a key Bahai term designating the prophets/founders of the world’s religions as the manifestations of the names and attributes of God.

  • MECQUENEM, ROLAND DE

    Laurianne Martinez-Sève

    (1877-1957), French archeologist, director of the excavations of the Mission Archèologique de Susiane at Susa from 1913 to 1946.

  • MEDḤAT PASHA

    Necati Alkan

    A liberal Ottoman statesman of the 19th century, who served both as provincial governor and grand vizier (b. Istanbul, 18 October 1822; d. Ṭāʾef, 8 May 1884).

  • MEDIA

    M. Dandamayev and I. Medvedskaya

    ancient population region (from the end of the 2nd millennium BCE) and kingdom in northwestern Iran.

  • MEDICINE i. INTRODUCTION OF WESTERN MEDICINE TO IRAN

    Shireen Mahdavi

    Western medicine was introduced to Iran by European physicians who began to arrive there from early nineteenth century onwards.

  • MEGABATES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Greek rendering of the well-known name OIran. *Baga-pāta- “protected by the gods” (which is attested in El. Ba-qa-ba-(ad-/ud-)da, Bab. Ba-ga-pa-a-ta/tu4, Ba-ga-(’)-pa-a-tú, etc., Aram. bgpt, Lyc. Magabata).

  • MEHR-NARSEH

    Touraj Daryaee

    The grand vizier (Mid. Pers. wuzurg framādār) during the reigns of the Sasanian kings Yazdgerd I (r. 399-421 CE), Bahrām V (r. 421-39), Yazdgerd II (r. 439-57), and Pērōz (r. 459-84).

  • MEHRAGĀN

    Simone Cristoforetti

    an Iranian festival apparently dedicated to the god Miθra/Mehr, occurring also in onomastics and toponymy.

  • MEHRAJĀN

    Habib Borjian

    oasis and the seat of Naḵlestān district in Ḵur-Biābānak sub-province, Isfahan province.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MEIER, FRITZ

    Gudrun Schubert

    In 1937, Meier went for the first time to Iran, where he visited Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. In 1938, he was awarded a prize at the University of Basel for his research on the Persian mystic Najm-al-Din Kobrā, and in the same year returned to Istanbul to continue his study of manuscripts of Islamic mystical texts.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MEILLET, (PAUL JULES) ANTOINE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Meillet called himself a comparatist, and probably he would have called himself a born comparatist. At the same time, he was an acknowledged philologist with a good grounding not only in Greek and Latin, but also in less common languages such as Armenian and Old Church Slavic.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MELZER, UTO

    Nosratollah Rastegar

     (1881-1961), teacher, author, and independent scholar.

  • MEM-Ê ALAN

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    (Kurdish romance), probably the best-known Kurdish tale, and the one most often regarded as representative of Kurdish verbal art generally. 

  • MENASCE, JEAN PIERRE DE

    Philippe Gignoux

    (1902-1973), an eminent Iranist and historian of religions. His masterpiece was the explication of the Dēnkard, book III, a text of philosophical and theological content. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MENHĀJ-e SERĀJ

    C. E. Bosworth

    author of a general history in Persian valuable as a first-hand source for the history of the Ghurids, the Šamsi Delhi Sultans, and the irruption of the Mongols into the eastern Islamic lands.

  • MENOSTANES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Achaemenid prince, son of Artaxerxes I’s brother Artarios, who was satrap of Babylon; he was a “eunuch” at Artaxerxes’ court and during the troubles about the succession after Artaxerxes’ death in 424/23 BCE.

  • MENTOR and MEMNON

    Ernst Badian

    Rhodian brothers, condottieri of the late Achaemenid period.

  • MEʿRĀJ

    Multiple Authors

    The term meʿrāj means “instrument of ascension,” more specifically associated with the Prophet Mohammad's “heavenly or celestial ascent”.

  • MEʿRĀJ i. DEFINITION

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    Derived from the Arabic instrumental form mefʿāl, the term meʿrāj means “instrument of ascension,” either a “ladder” or a “stairway;” it can also designate the place one revolves or from where one climbs. However, in a technical sense and often accompanied by the article al-, it designates “heavenly or celestial ascent,” more specifically that which Muslim tradition attributes to the Prophet Mohammad, an ascension soon associated with the “nocturnal or night journey” (esrāʾ) of the latter.

  • MEʿRĀJ ii. Illustrations

    Christiane J. Gruber

    From the turn of the 14th century onward, depictions of the Prophet Moḥammad’s night journey (esrāʾ) and heavenly ascent (meʿrāj) were integrated into illustrated world histories and biographies.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MESKAWAYH, ABU ʿALI AḤMAD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    ABU ʿALI AḤMAD b. Moḥammad, Persian chancery official and treasury clerk of the Buyid period, boon companion, litterateur and accomplished writer in Arabic.

  • MESOPOTAMIA i. Iranians in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    an overview of the presence of Medes, Persians, and other Iranian-speakers in Mesopotamia prior to the Achaemenid empire.

  • MESSINA, GIUSEPPE

    Carlo G. Cereti

    (1893-1951), SJ, Italian scholar of Middle and Modern Iranian studies.

  • METALWORK

    Linda Komaroff

    perhaps the most continuous and best-documented artistic medium from Iran in the Islamic period.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • Meʿyār-e Jamāli wa meftāḥ-e Abu Esḥāqi

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (‘Jamāl’s touchstone and Abu Esḥāq’s key’), a dictionary of the Persian language (comp. ca. 745/1344).

  • MEYBOD

    Ali Modarres

    name of a sub-province (šahrestān) and town in Yazd Province (32°14′45″ N, 54°2′10″ E; elev. 3,637 ft.) on the road to Tehran, at a short distance south of Ardakān (see ARDAKĀN-e YAZD) and about 48 km northwest of the city of Yazd.

  • MEYBODI, ABU'L-FAŻL RAŠID-AL-DIN

    Annabel Keeler

    (fl. early 12th cent.), Sunni scholar, mystic and author of a monumental Persian Sufi commentary on the Qurʾān.

  • MEYMA i. The District

    Habib Borjian

    The district rests on a high plain on the western foothills of the Kargas range, which separates Meyma from Naṭanz on the east.

  • MEYMA ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    district is at the heart of the area where the Central dialects are spoken.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.