Table of Contents


    Patrick Wing

    (Āl-e Moẓaffar), family of governors of Yazd under the Il-Khanids, who expanded their domain after the collapse of the Il-Khanid power and established the Mozaffarid dynasty in Yazd, KermanFars, and ʿErāq-e ʿAjam, which endured until its destruction by Timur (Tamerlane). 

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    Gregory Semenov

    site of the 7th-8th-century refuge of the rulers of Panjikant in Sogdiana, where an important archive of documents written in Sogdian was discovered in the 1930s.

  • MUHAMMADIEV, Fazliddin

    Keith Hitchins

    Tajik writer (1928-1986). Numerous works of his were translated into Russian and other languages of the Soviet Union and of Eastern Europe.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1834-1898), Austrian scholar of linguistics and ethnography. He was the founder and main advocate of the so-called “linguistic ethnography.” He worked on a genealogical classification and a description of all the languages around the globe known at his time (and often examined for the first time by himself). 

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  • MÜLLER, Friedrich W. K.

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst

    (1863-1930), scholar of Oriental cultures and languages; he was able to make groundbreaking discoveries and to make a major contribution to the establishment of the philological and historical study of texts in Middle Iranian and Old Turkish and to the study of original Manichean texts.

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    Avinoam Shalem

    The collecting of Persian art in Munich goes back at least to the reign of Duke Albrecht V (r. 1516-75). Artifacts of oriental origin were mainly registered as exotica. For example, between 1545 and 1550, Hans Mielich (1516-73), the court painter of Albrecht V, provided the duke with an illustrated inventory of the varied treasures in the court.

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    Sheila R. Canby

    Early examples of mural painting are at sites on the western and eastern fringes of the Iranian world, such as Dura Europos, Syria, and Kuh-e Ḵˇāja in Sistān, where wall paintings range from the late Parthian to the late Sasanian period.

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    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    the eponymous strongman of a Ḡozz clan, whose nephew Toḡrel founded the Saljuq dynasty.


    Keith Hitchins

    (Mošfeqi, ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān), Tajik poet (1525-1588).


    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    an early Pottery Neolithic site in Fars Province, southwest Iran. Located approximately 11 km southeast of Persepolis, this eponymous site for the Mushki culture forms a small and low mound.

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  • MUSIC HISTORY i. Pre-Islamic Iran

    Bo Lawergren

    The documentation is largely archeological with a sprinkling of textual sources, and some evidence is here assembled to outline Iran’s pre-Islamic music history.

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  • MUSIC HISTORY ii. CA. 650 TO 1370 CE

    Eckhard Neubauer

    When in 31/651 Yazdgerd III, the last Sasanian king, left Iran, fleeing from the Arab troops, he took with him “1,000 cooks and 1,000 musicians.”

  • Marsiye Ḵāni

    music sample

  • Menu of Music Samples

    music sample

    a collection of music samples with their related entries on The Encyclopaedia Iranica.

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  • Mirqambar

    music sample

  • Mowlūd Ḵvāni in Mināb

    music sample



    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter M entries.