Table of Contents

  • MOTʿA

    Shahla Haeri

    in Islamic law, the word (lit. “pleasure”) used as a technical term for a marriage contracted for a definite period of time.

  • MOʾTAMEN, Zeyn-al-ʿĀbedin

    Ali Gheissari

    A teacher, writer, and scholar of Persian literature.


    Nina Garsoïan

    from the later Middle Ages, and down to the present, honored as the “Father of Armenian History” (Patmahayr). According to his own words, he was a pupil of St. Maštoc‘, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet, writing in the 5th century CE. 

  • MO’AYYERI, Mohammad Hasan

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    (1909-1968), prominent poet and lyricist, better known as Rahi.


    Gregory Semenov

    site of the 7th-8th-century refuge of the rulers of Penjikent in Sogdiana, where an important archive of documents written in Sogdian was discovered in the 1930s.

  • MUHAMMADIEV, Fazliddin

    Keith Hitchins

    Tajik writer (1928-1986). Numerous works of his were translated into Russian and other languages of the Soviet Union and of Eastern Europe.


    Avinoam Shalem

    The collecting of Persian art in Munich goes back at least to the reign of Duke Albrecht V (r. 1516-75). Artifacts of oriental origin were mainly registered as exotica. For example, between 1545 and 1550, Hans Mielich (1516-73), the court painter of Albrecht V, provided the duke with an illustrated inventory of the varied treasures in the court, among which is depicted an Ottoman vessel decorated with precious stones.

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    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    the eponymous strongman of a Ḡozz clan, whose nephew Toḡrel founded the Saljuq dynasty.


    Keith Hitchins

    (Mošfeqi, ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān), Tajik poet (1525-1588).


    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    an early Pottery Neolithic site in Fars Province, southwest Iran. Located approximately 11 km southeast of Persepolis, this eponymous site for the Mushki culture forms a small and low mound.

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