Table of Contents

  • MĀ WARĀʾ AL-NAHR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the classical designation for Transoxania or Transoxiana. It was defined by the early Arabic historians and geographers as the lands under Muslim control lying to the north of the middle and upper Oxus or Āmu Daryā.

  • MAʿĀYEB AL-REJĀL

    Afsaneh Najmabadi

    a treatise written in 1894 by Bibi Ḵānom Estarābādi/Astarābādi as a counterargument to the anonymous Taʾdib al-neswān/Taʾdib al-nesāʾ, a tract on how to discipline women, published in the mid-19th century.

  • MACHALSKI, FRANCISZEK

    Anna Krasnowolska

    (1904-1979), Polish Iranist. Some of his best papers are devoted to cultural and political life in Pahlavi Persia.

  • MACKENZIE, DAVID NEIL

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst

    Believing that the University of London’s School of Oriental and African Studies would be the institution most suited to his interests, Mackenzie enrolled there in September 1948. Because Pashto was not offered, he chose Persian, and completed the three-year course for a B.A. in mid 1951 under A. K. S. Lambton.

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  • MADĀʾEN

    Michael Morony

    the Sasanian metropolitan area of several contiguous cities, on both sides of the Tigris and connected by floating bridges, about 35 km southeast of Abbasid Baghdad.

  • MADĀR AL-AFĀŻEL

    Solomon Bayevsky

    dictionary of the Persian language compiled in 1001/1593 by the poet and historian Allāh-dād Fayżī b. Asad al-ʿOlamāʾ ʿAli-šir Serhendi.

  • MĀDAR-E SOLAYMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    "Solaymān's mother," local name of the tomb of Cyrus. See CYRUS v. The Tomb of Cyrus

  • MĀDAYĀN Ī HAZĀR DĀDESTĀN

    Maria Macuch

    (Book of a Thousand Judgements), Pahlavi Law-Book from the late Sasanian period (first half of the seventh century).

  • MĀDDA TĀRIḴ

    Paul Losensky

    chronogram poem, a poetic genre characterized by the inclusion of the year in which an event occurred.

  • MAFĀTIḤ AL-ʿOLUM

    George Saliba

    (Keys to sciences) by  Ḵᵛārazmi, a book in which key terms used by various classes of scholars, artisans, state officials, and others are explained (comp. ca. 366/976).

  • MAGI

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    the only recorded designation of priests of all western Iranians during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian (mgw), and Sasanian periods.

  • MAGIC i. MAGICAL ELEMENTS IN THE AVESTA AND NĒRANG LITERATURE

    Antonio Panaino

    The presence of magical elements in the strict sense  in Avestan literature has been considered rare.

  • MAGIC ii. IN LITERATURE AND FOLKLORE IN THE ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Mahmud Omidsalar

    Magic can be briefly described as the art of influencing the course of events by the occult control of natural phenomena through the application of ritual observances acquired through a study of esoteric and often closely guarded corpus of knowledge and traditions.

  • MAGOPHONIA

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    An appropriate Iranian word for magophonia is the Sogdian mwγzt- (killing of the Magi).

  • MĀH YAŠT

    William W. Malandra

    one of what have been termed ‘minor Yašts’  of the Avesta; it is dedicated to the moon.

  • MAḤALLĀTI, Moḥammad

    Javad Golmohammadi

    a master calligrapher of the Timurid period, known only through three surviving works on wood and stone (a cetanoph, a door, and a stone plaque), which reflect the stylistic influence of the Timurid prince and master calligrapher Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Bāysonqor (d. 1493).

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  • MAHĀRLU LAKE

    Karāmat-Allāh Afsar

    a picturesque, rather extensive body of water to the southeast of Shiraz.

  • MAHDAVI, Yaḥyā

    Moḥammad Ḵᵛānsāri and EIr

    Mahdavi continued his education at Tehran Teachers College from 1928 until 1931, from which he was among the first to graduate with a bachelor's degree. In 1931, he received a scholarship from the state to continue his education in France until his graduation in 1938, writing his doctoral thesis under André Lanlande and Emile Bréhier.

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  • MAḤFEL-E RUḤĀNI

    Moojan Momen

    current designation of the Bahai governing councils elected at local and national level.

  • MAHJUB, MOHAMMAD JA’FAR

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    prominent scholar of Persian literature, essayist, translator, university teacher, and one of the founders of the discipline of folklore in Iran.

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  • MAḤJUBI, Morteżā

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    (1900-1965), composer and pianist,  noted for his use of the piano to perform traditional Iranian music.

  • MAḤJUBI, Reżā

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    (1898-1954) composer and violinist, brother of Morteżā.

  • MAḤMUD MIRZĀ

    Dominic Parviz Brookshaw

    (b. 1799, d. between 1854 and 1858), fifteenth son of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah Qajar (r. 1797-1834), calligrapher, poet, and anthologist.

  • MAJALLA-ye JAMʿIYAT-e NESWĀN-e WAṬANḴᵛĀH-e IRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    magazine of the women's association of that name, 1923-26.

  • MAJALLA-ye RASMI-e ṮABT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    official journal of the Ministry of Justice from 1928.

  • MAJD, Loṭf-Allāh

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    r player known for his brilliant virtuosity and distinctive style (1917-1978).

  • MAJD-AL-ESLĀM KERMĀNI

    Maryam Kamali

    Shaikh Aḥmad (1871-1923), journalist, participant/observer in the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11. One of his basic concerns of Majd-al-Eslām was to spread knowledge, a notion expressed through foreign and national news coverage in the newspaper Adab. He also started publishing portrait drawings of famous Iranians and worldwide social figures in order to familiarize people with their names and achievements.

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  • MAJD-AL-MOLK II

    M. Dabirsiāqi

    Majd-al-Molk was a learned man with a knowledge of Persian and Arabic literature. He was knowledgeable in philosophy and religious sciences and was an expert in calligraphy, engraving, and all kinds of secretarial craft. As a poet, he followed the style of past masters. Samples of his poetry mentioned by Ebrāhim Khan Madāyeḥnegār.

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  • MAJLESI, Moḥammad-Bāqer

    Rainer Brunner

    (b. 1627; d. 1699 or 1700), an eminent Twelver Shiʿite jurist in Safavid Iran (1501-1722) and one of the most important hadith scholars of Twelver Shiʿism.

  • MAJLESI, MOḤAMMAD-TAQI

    Rainer Brunner

    b. Maqṣud-ʿAli Eṣfahāni, commonly referred to as Majlesi-ye Awwal, an important Twelver Shiʿite jurist and Hadith scholar of the Aḵbāri school.

  • MAKRĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (also Mokrān) the coastal region of Baluchistan, extending from the Somniani Bay to the northwest of Karachi in the east westwards to the fringes of the region of Bashkardia/Bāšgerd in the southern part of the Sistān and Balučestān province of modern Iran.

  • MAKTAB

    Cross-Reference

    See EDUCATION iii. The Traditional Elementary School.

  • MĀKŪLĀ DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E MĀKŪLĀ.

  • MALABĀRI, BEHRĀMJI MERWĀNJI

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    Malabari began his journalistic and editorial career after Sir Cowasji Jehangir, an eminent Parsi businessman, introduced him to Martin Woods, then the editor of the Times of India. Malabari also began writing a serial column for the Indian Spectator, an English language weekly magazine.

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  • MALAKUT

    Saeed Honarmand

    the highly acclaimed and the only published novella by the noted modernist fiction writer Bahram Sadeqi.

  • MALEKŠĀH

    David Durand-Guédy

    the Great Saljuq sultan, during whose reign the Saljuq empire attained its maximum extension.

  • MALIĀN

    Kamyar Abdi

    an important archeological site in the Kor River basin in central Fārs, identified as ancient Anshan, the highland capital of Elam. At nearly 200 ha, Maliān is the largest pre-Achaemenid settlement in Fārs and one of largest archeological sites in Iran.

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  • MAMIKONEAN

    Nina Garsoian

    the most distinguished family in Early Christian Armenia after the ruling Arsacid house. Their power survived the fall of the dynasty in 428 and began to wane only from the end of the 6th century.

  • MAMSIRATI, DÄBE

    F. Thordarson

    (Russian: Dabe Mamsurov), Ossetic author (1909-1966).

  • MAḤMUD B. SEBÜKTEGIN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the first fully independent ruler of the Turkish Ghaznavid dynasty, who reigned (388-421/998-1030) over what had become by his death a vast military empire.

  • MAʾMUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , Abu’l-ʿAbbās ʿAbd-Allāh, the seventh Abbasid caliph (r. 813-833), son of Hārun-al-Rašid (d. 809) by a Persian concubine.

  • MANDAEANS i. HISTORY

    Edmondo F. Lupieri

    an ethnic group (also called Nasoreans or Ar. Ṣābeʾin) belonging to one of the less represented religions of the Near East.

  • MANDAEANS ii. THE MANDAEAN RELIGION

    Kurt Rudolph

    A major characteristic of the Mandaeans is the frequent ritual use of (running) water (for baptisms and ritual purifications); another is the possession of a rich literature

  • MANDAEANS iii. INTERACTION WITH IRANIAN RELIGION

    Kurt Rudolph

    assimilation and corresponding processing of Iranian (Persian) components within the Mandaean religion can be demonstrated on different levels: in the vocabulary, in the mythology or theology, in the cultic-ritual realm, and in the calendar.

  • MANDAEANS iv. COMMUNITY IN IRAN

    Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley

    According to the 15 September 2004 United States Department of State International Religious Freedom Report for Iran, Section 1, the current Mandaean population in Persia comprises between 5,000 and 10,000 persons.

  • MANDAEANS v. MANDAIC LANGUAGE

    Christa Müller-Kessler

    Mandaic is the term for the Aramaic dialect of the last remaining non-Christian Gnostics from Late Antiquity, the Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran (Ḵuzestān). It belongs to the Southeastern Aramaic dialect group with Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic (Babylonian Jewish Aramaic) and Koiné Babylonian Aramaic.

  • MANDAEANS vi. NEO-MANDAIC LANGUAGE

    Charles Häberl

    or modern Mandaic, the contemporary form of Mandaic, the language of the Mandaean religious community of Iraq and Iran. As such, it is the only known form of any of the classical literary dialects of Aramaic to survive to the present date, but it is severely endangered today.

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  • MANDANE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of a daughter of the Median king Astyages.

  • MANGHITS

    ANKE VON KÜGELGEN

    self-denomination of Mongol and Turkic tribes which played an eminent role in the Golden Horde.

  • MANI

    Werner Sundermann

    the founder of the religion of Manicheism in the 3rd century CE.