Table of Contents

  • LĀHIJĀN

    Christian Bromberger

    a city in the province of Gilān.  It is located at 37°12′ N, long 50°0′ E, to the east of the lower reaches of Safidrud at an altitude of 4 m.

  • LĀHŪRĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    Cross-reference

    17th-century Indo-Persian historian and author of the Pādšāh-nāma, the official account of the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-67/1628-57). See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD LĀHŪRĪ.

  • LAHUTI, Abu’l-Qasem

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    (1887-1957), Marxist poet, political activist, and an important contributor to the modern of poetry of Tajikistan.

  • LĀḴ-MAZĀR

    V. A. Livshits

    “Rocky sacred place (?),” name applied to gorges not far from the settlement of Kuč, 29 km southeast of Birjand in Khorasan Province (ostān). 

  • LAKHMIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an Arab dynasty that ruled in central Iraq with their capital at Ḥira for roughly three centuries, from about 300 to 602 CE, generally but intermittently as the allies and clients of the Sasanian kings of Persia.

  • LANGARUD

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    a city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in Gilān located at lat 37°11′ N, long 50°09′ E on the Langarud River, which cuts through the city, dividing it into two parts.

  • LĀRAK

    Daniel T. Potts

    a small island in the Straits of Hormuz to the south of Hormuz Island, located approximately 45 kms southeast of Bandar Abbas and 18 kms southeast of the eastern end of Qeshm Island at lat 26°51′0″ N, long 56°21′0″ E. 

  • LARK

    Cross-Reference

    See ČAKĀVAK.

  • LAŠANI

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkicized Kurdish tribe in Fārs. The Lašani accompanied Karim Khan Zand to the province in the mid-18th century.

  • LAURENS, Jules Joseph Augustin

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (1825-1901), French artist in drawing, painting, and lithography who depicted Oriental and other subjects.

  • LAWḤ

    M. Momen and B. T. Lawson

    (tablet), a term used distinctively in the Bahai writings as part of the title of individual compositions of Bahāʾ-Allāh addressed to individuals or groups of individuals.

  • LAYARD, Austen Henry

    John Curtis

    Layard is chiefly known for his excavations in northern Iraq between 1845 and 1851. He worked at the Assyrian sites of Nimrud and Nineveh, the North-West Palace of Assurnasirpal II and South-West Palace of Sennacherib, where he found stone bas-reliefs and figures as well as cuneiform tablets and small objects in bronze, glass, and ivory.

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  • LE STRANGE, GUY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (1854-1933), scholar in Persian, Arabic, and Spanish, specially notable for his work in the field of the historical geography of the pre-modern Middle Eastern and Eastern Islamic lands and his editing of Persian geographical texts. Le Strange’s chef d’œuvre is, however, undoubtedly The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate(1905).  

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  • LENTIL

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿADAS.

  • LENTZ, OTTO HELMUT WOLFGANG

    Gerd Gropp

    Lentz wrote no voluminous book, but many essays in periodicals, including some pioneer works on Turfan texts, Iranian dialects, local eastern systems of time reckoning, and loan words in Mid. Iranian. His doctoral dissertation (supervised by Andreas) on North Iranian elements in the Šāh-nāma (1926) won him immediate recognition.

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  • LEOPARD

    Eskandar Firouz

    (Panthera pardus, Pers. Palang), the largest and most powerful member of the cat family still occurring in Iran. The Persian leopard is very variable in both size and coloration, depending on the conditions of the natural environment of its range.

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  • LESĀN-AL-DAWLA

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    , MIRZĀ ʿALI KHAN (1862-ca. 1920), royal librarian. His career at the royal court began in Tabriz in 1891.

  • LEWIS, David Malcolm

    Amılie Kuhrt

    Lewis was educated at the City of London School and Corpus Christi, Oxford, where he studied the traditional Classics curriculum in Greek and Latin, philosophy and ancient history (1945-1949). After National Service in the Royal Army Education Corps (1949-1951), he pursued graduate studies at Princeton, NJ with two leading historians of classical Greece before returning to Oxford.

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  • LEXICOGRAPHY

    John R. Perry

    the compiling of dictionaries, glossaries, and vocabularies of a language or a particular lexical corpus.

  • LEYLI O MAJNUN

    A. A. Seyed-Gohrab

    narrative poem of approximately 4,600 lines composed in 584/1188 by the famous poet Neẓāmi of Ganja.