Table of Contents

  • KILIZU

    Antonio Invernizzi

    capital of the Assyrian province of the same name, near the mound Qaṣr Šemāmok in northern Mesopotamia, where a Parthian necropolis was brought to light.

  • KIMIĀ

    Pierre Lory

    “Alchemy.” Externally, the purpose of alchemy was the conversion of base metals like lead into silver or gold by means of long and complicated operations leading to the production of a mysterious substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone,’ able to operate the transmutation. 

  • KING OF THE BENIGHTED

    NASRIN RAHIMIEH & DANIEL RAFINEJAD

    As Milani describes in his afterword to the English translation, Golshiri incrementally sent handwritten pages of the manuscript to Milani in California in the guise of personal letters, “to avoid the ever-watchful gaze of the Islamic censors.”

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  • Kingship ii. Parthian Period

    Edward Dąbrowa

    Parthian kingship started with the Arsacids monarchy and was an original form of Oriental kingship. The royal ideology was created by combining elements of different provenance; Greek elements were systematically removed or relegated to be replaced by Iranian traditions.

  • ḴIRI

    Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami

    wallflower, a widely cultivated, sweet-smelling, ornamental plant of the mustard family, which often grows on old walls, rocks, and quarries, particularly limestone.

  • KIRSTE, Johann Ferdinand Otto

    Michaela Zinko

    Johann Kirste received his primary and secondary education in Graz, and after graduating from high school (Gymnasium) in 1870, he enrolled at the University of Graz to study Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit with Karl Schenkl. From 1872 until 1874, in the traditional manner of the time, Kirste studied at several German universities to broaden his training.

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  • KISH ISLAND

    D. T. Potts

    (Ar. Qeys), small island in the lower Persian Gulf, noted for its palm gardens.

  • KOBRAWIYA i. THE EPONYM

    Hamid Algar

    Abu’l-Jannāb Aḥmad b.ʿOmar Najm-al-Din Kobrā, eponym of the Kobrawiya, was born in Ḵᵛārazm in 1145 or possibly a decade later.

  • KOBRAWIYA ii. THE ORDER

    Hamid Algar

    The crystallization of a given line of Sufi tradition as an “order” should not be understood as imposing on all the spiritual descendants of the eponym a definitive and permanently binding choice of methods and emphases.

  • ḴODĀYDĀDZĀDA, BĀBĀ-YUNOS

    Habib Borjian

    (b. ca. 1870-75, d. 1945), Tajik folk poet and singer. His exceptional skill in singing the Guruḡli stories on the dotār (a long-neck lute) won him great reputation throughout Tajikistan. According to his biographer, his performance would take hours from evening to dawn, with only short breaks to relax and eat, for several nights in a row. 

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  • KOFRI, Moḥammad Kermānšāhi

    Shireen Mahdavi

    (1829-1908), physician and surgeon, the son of Pir Moḥammad Zāreʿ, a merchant.

  • KOH-I-NOOR

    Iradj Amini

    (Kuh-e Nur; lit. “Mountain of Light”), the most celebrated diamond in the world, with rich legendary and historical associations.

  • ḴOʾI, MIRZĀ ʿALIQOLI

    Ulrich Marzolph

    (1815-ca. 1856), the most prolific illustrator of Persian lithographed books in the Qajar period. Educated in Tabriz, he published an edition of the Ḵamsa‑ye Neẓāmi.

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  • ḴOJANDIS OF ISFAHAN

    David Durand-Guédy

    a prominent family of Šāfeʿi ulema, who were settled in Isfahan by the Saljuq grand vizier Neẓām-al-Molk.  They turned into the most important family and political actor in that city during the Saljuq period and continued to play a significant role up to the Mongol invasion.

  • ḴOJESTĀNI, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. 882), commander of the Taherids in Khorasan, and after the Ṣaffarid occupation of Nishapur in 873, a contender for power.

  • KOJUR

    Multiple Authors

    historical district in the central Alborz, northwestern Māzandarān.  i. Historical geography.  ii. Language and culture.

  • KOJUR i. Historical Geography

    Habib Borjian

    The historical district of Kojur covers roughly a quadrangle bounded by the Caspian Sea on the north, the Čālus River on the west, Nur valley on the south, and Suledeh valley on the east. 

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  • KOJUR ii. Language

    Habib Borjian

    Two major languages of native Caspian and Kurdish dialects are spoken in Kojur. The Caspian dialect is structurally Mazandarani with some divergence. The Kurdish dialect is spoken by the Kurdish immigrants and remains unstudied.

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  • KOJUR iii. The Calendar

    Habib Borjian

    The Ṭabari or Deylami year observed in Kojur consists of twelve months, thirty days each, plus five intercalary days called petak, concluding the year.

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  • KOLAYNI

    Etan Kohlberg

    , Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Yaʿqub b. Esḥāq Rāzi (d. 941), prominent Imami traditionist.

  • KOLUKJĀNLU

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the Ḵalḵāl region of eastern Azerbaijan.

  • KONDORI, MOḤAMMED B. MANṢUR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (b. ca. 1024, d. 1064), vizier to Ṭoḡrel Beg (r. 1040-63), the first sultan of the Great Saljuqs, and, briefly, to Ṭoḡrel’s successor Alp Arslān (r. 1063-72).

  • KONOW, STEN

    Fridrik Thordarson

    Konow was an all-around Indologist, whose extensive scholarly work covers most branches of Indian studies. His occupation with Grierson’s Linguistic Survey of India, where he edited half a dozen of volumes on various languages, resulted in a long series of studies of Tibeto-Burman, Munda and Dravidian languages.

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  • KORA-SONNI

    Pierre Oberling

    a tribe in western Persian Azerbaijan.

  • ḴORĀSĀNI, MOLLĀ ṢĀDEQ

    Vahid Rafati

    (d. 1874), teacher, defender and promulgator of the Babi-Bahai faiths.

  • KORK

    Rudi Matthee

    soft wool, also called Kermān wool, used for the manufacture of fine clothing and felt hats.

  • KÖROĞLU i. LITERARY TRADITION

    Hasan Javadi

    early-17th-century folk hero and poet, whose stories are mainly known among the Turkic peoples but have also passed into other folk literatures and circulate in Azerbaijan and Khorasan. Bards usually perform the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic to the accompaniment of a string instrument.

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  • KÖROĞLU ii. PERFORMANCE ASPECTS

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    The traditional venues for the performance of the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic are life-cycle celebrations, private gatherings, and teahouses. In Azerbaijan and northern Khorasan, from the 17th century up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978, teahouses played a pivotal role in the diffusion and the preservation of the epic.

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  • KOROSH

    Multiple Authors

    the name of a tribe scattered across southwestern Iran, whose language is closely related to southern varieties of Balochi.

  • KOROSH i. The Korosh people

    Maryam Nourzaei, Erik Anonby, and Carina Jahani

    Korosh communities are found in villages near large towns and cities, and in the suburbs of these cities, across southwestern Iran. Their traditional livelihood is based on camel and goat husbandry.

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  • KOROSH ii. Linguistic Overview of Koroshi

    Maryam Nourzaei, Carina Jahani, and Erik Anonby

    Koroshi can be described as a distinct subgroup within the Balochi macro-language, although it shares many features with southern dialects of Balochi. The Koroshi spoken in Fars Province (the ‘northern’ dialect) differs to some extent from varieties of the southern dialect.

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  • ḴORRAMIS

    Patricia Crone

    adherents of a form of Iranian religion often identified as a survival or revival of the Zoroastrian heresy, Mazdakism.

  • ḴORRAMIS IN BYZANTIUM

    Evangelos Venetis

    Iranians who fought the ʿAbbasid caliph Moʿtaṣem be’llāh (r. 833-41) and enrolled in the Byzantine army of the iconoclast emperor Theophilos I (r. 829-42).

  • ḴORŠĀH B. QOBĀD ḤOSEYNI, NEẒĀM-AL-DIN

    Kioumars Ghereghlou

    a Hyderabad-based diplomat and historian of Iranian descent best known for his composition of a universal chronicle in Persian in the name of the Qoṭbšāhi ruler, Ebrāhim (r. 1550-80).

  • ḴORŠĀH, ROKN-AL-DIN

    Farhad Daftary

    (1230-1257), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam and the last lord of Alamut.

  • KOŠĀNIYA

    P. Lurje

    a medieval Sogdian town to the west of Samarkand. Its name is most probably related to the Yuezhi Kušān dynasty and its claimed heirs, such as the Kidarites.

  • ḴOSROW I

    Multiple Authors

    Sasanian king (r. 531-79), son of Kawād I.

  • ḴOSROW I i. LIFE AND TIMES

    Multiple Authors

    Sasanian king (r. 531-579). i. Life and Times (forthcoming).

  • ḴOSROW I ii. REFORMS

    Zeev Rubin

    a series of reforms in Sasanian taxation and military organization, probably initiated already under Kawāḏ I.

  • ḴOSROW I iii. COINAGE

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The reign of Ḵosrow I (531-79) is generally regarded as the heyday of the Sasanian empire, but his coinage marks the nadir of Sasanian coin art. The most noteworthy features are innovations in reverse typology. In the first type, the assistant figures are shown frontally, a totally new depiction; and they hold what appears to be a spear.

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  • ḴOSROW II

    James Howard-Johnston

    the last great king of the Sasanian dynasty (590-628 CE). The principal extant history of the period, written in Armenia in the early 650s, was appropriately entitled The History of Khosrow. He is rightly accorded a great deal of space in the Šāh-nāma of Ferdowsi.

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  • ḴOSROW KHAN GORJI QĀJĀR

    Hirotake Maeda

    (1785/86-1857), an influential eunuch (Ḵᵛāja) of the Qajar era, who lived in the period spanning the reigns Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834) to Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96).

  • ḴOSROW MALEK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the last sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in northwestern India, essentially in the Panjab, with his capital at Lahore. Various honorifics are attributed to him in the historical sources, in the verses of poets eulogizing him, and in the legends of his coins in the collections of the British Museum and Lahore

  • ḴOSROW MIRZĀ QĀJĀR

    George Bournoutian

    (1813-1875), the seventh son of Crown Prince ʿAbbās Mirzā, who led an official Iranian delegation to the Tsarist court in St. Petersburg.

  • ḴOSROW O ŠIRIN

    Paola Orsatti

    the second poem of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa, recounting the amorous relationship between the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parviz (r. 590-628 CE), and the beautiful princess Širin.

  • ḴOSROWŠĀH B. BAHRĀMŠĀH

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    penultimate ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, apparently still in Ghazna until the dynasty found its last home at Lahore in northwestern India at a date around or soon after the time of his death.

  • ḴOṬBA

    Tahera Qutbuddin

    (oration, speech, sermon), a formal public address performed in a broad range of contexts by Muslims across the globe, rooted in the extemporaneously composed discourses of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Arabia.

  • ḴOTTAL

    Clifford Edmund Bosworth

    a province of medieval Islamic times on the right bank of the upper Oxus river in modern Tajikistan. A region of lush pastures, Ḵottal was famed for horse-breeding.

  • KRÁMSKÝ, JIRÍ

    Jiri Bečka

    (1913-1991), Czech general linguist who specialized in Persian language studies. He then studied English and Persian (the latter under Professor J. Rypka) at the Charles University, Prague. 

  • Křikavová, Adéla

    Jiri Bečka

    (1938-2002), Czech scholar of Iranian and particularly Kurdish studies.

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