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Xavier de Planhol
Several references to kalāt in the tragic episode of the young Forud in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma are thought to refer to this. Its earliest mention in historical accounts comes from the Mongol period, when the fourth Il-khan of Iran, Arḡun Khan built a defensive work at the south approach that still bears his name (“Gate of Arḡun”).This Article Has Images/Tables.
Ḥāj Moḥammad Ebrāhim (b. Isfahan, 1766; d. Isfahan, 1845), prominent Oṣuli jurist, influential in the affairs of Isfahan during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Moḥammad Shah.
Persian violinist and songwriter (1919-1990). As a violinist, Ḵāledi was known for his command of traditional Persian music and its innovative interpretation. As a composer, he was admired for the range of his rhythmically varied and elegiac songs.
(The Hidden Words), a collection of aphorisms (71 in Arabic and 82 in Persian) by Bahāʾ-Allāh on spiritual and moral themes, dating from 1274/1857-58 and considered one of his most important writings.
Mirzā ʿAbd-Allāh was an amateur musician whose tār teachers included Āqā Ḥosaynqoli Šahnāzi and Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Darviš Khan. Ruḥ-Allāh’s earliest exposure to music was by way of his father’s casual tār performances at home. As a child, he was, however, more fascinated by the sound of Rokn-al-Din Moḵtār’s violin, which he heard on rare occasions.This Article Has Images/Tables.
(1890-1963), a contemporary Iraqi-Iranian reformist cleric and political activist in anti-British protests and proponent of political power for the Shiʿite jurists in 20th-century Iran, who probably influenced Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers.This Article Has Images/Tables.
a Kurdish tribe in the southernmost part of Persian Kurdistan. The last of the great Kalhor chiefs was Dāwud Khan, who ruled the tribe in the early 1900s.
(1829-1892), one of the most prominent 19th-century Persian calligraphers, often compared to such great masters of nastaʿliq as Mir ʿAli Heravi and Mir ʿEmād Sayfi Qazvini.
(1592/93-1654), grand vizier under Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629) and then again under Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-66).
Beatrice Forbes Manz
Timurid ruler (1405-09). He became active in the military on the Indian campaign in 1398-99 and played a prominent part in the seven-year campaign of 1399-1404.