Table of Contents


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    [KAKWAYHIDS], a dynasty of Deylamite origin that ruled in western Persia, Jebāl, and Kurdistan about 1008-51 as independent princes.


    C. E. Bosworth

    b. Moḥammad, Abu Aḥmad (d. 1009), Amir in Sistān of the “second line” of Saffarids, who ruled between 963 and 1003.


    Multiple Authors

    a tribe which originated in Turkistan and settled approximately 250 km to the southwest of Tehran. 


    Pierre Oberling

    tribe originating from Turkistan, generally referred to as Turks but possibly Indo-Iranian.

  • ḴALAJ ii. Ḵalaji Language

    Michael Knüppel

    spoken by the Ḵalaj tribe, in the 1960s and 1970s numbering approximately 20,000 people.


    Willem Floor

    “chief, leader,” from the late 15th century onwards, particularly the local official (mayor) in charge of the administration of a town.


    Habib Borjian

    (or Kalār-rostāq), and Kalārdašt, historical district in western Māzandarān. i. The District and Sub-District.  ii. The Dialect.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ i. The District and Sub-District

    Habib Borjian

    This predominantly mountainous district extends along the Caspian coast from the Namakābrud (Namakāvarud) river on the west to the Čālus river on the east.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The Caspian vernaculars spoken in Kalārestāq, together with those of Tonekābon district, may not be properly classified as either Māzandarāni or Gilaki but serve as a transition between these two language groups.

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    Xavier de Planhol

    Several references to kalāt in the tragic episode of the young Forud in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma are thought to refer to this. Its earliest mention in historical accounts comes from the Mongol period, when the fourth Il-khan of Iran, Arḡun Khan built a defensive work at the south approach that still bears his name (“Gate of Arḡun”).

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