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    Willem Floor

    “chief, leader,” from the late 15th century onwards, particularly the local official (mayor) in charge of the administration of a town.


    Habib Borjian

    (or Kalār-rostāq), and Kalārdašt, historical district in western Māzandarān. i. The District and Sub-District.  ii. The Dialect.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ i. The District and Sub-District

    Habib Borjian

    This predominantly mountainous district extends along the Caspian coast from the Namakābrud (Namakāvarud) river on the west to the Čālus river on the east.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The Caspian vernaculars spoken in Kalārestāq, together with those of Tonekābon district, may not be properly classified as either Māzandarāni or Gilaki but serve as a transition between these two language groups.

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    Xavier de Planhol

    Several references to kalāt in the tragic episode of the young Forud in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma are thought to refer to this. Its earliest mention in historical accounts comes from the Mongol period, when the fourth Il-khan of Iran, Arḡun Khan built a defensive work at the south approach that still bears his name (“Gate of Arḡun”).

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    Hamid Algar

    Ḥāj Moḥammad Ebrāhim (b. Isfahan, 1766; d. Isfahan, 1845), prominent Oṣuli jurist, influential in the affairs of Isfahan during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Moḥammad Shah.

  • ḴĀLEDI, Mehdi

    E. Naḵjavāni

    Persian violinist and songwriter (1919-1990). As a violinist, Ḵāledi was known for his command of traditional Persian music and its innovative interpretation. As a composer, he was admired for the range of his rhythmically varied and elegiac songs.


    Moojan Momen

    (The Hidden Words), a collection of aphorisms (71 in Arabic and 82 in Persian) by Bahāʾ-Allāh on spiritual and moral themes, dating from 1274/1857-58 and considered one of his most important writings.


    Hormoz Farhat

    Mirzā ʿAbd-Allāh was an amateur musician whose tār teachers included Āqā Ḥosaynqoli Šahnāzi and Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Darviš Khan. Ruḥ-Allāh’s earliest exposure to music was by way of his father’s casual tār performances at home. As a child, he was, however, more fascinated by the sound of Rokn-al-Din Moḵtār’s violin, which he heard on rare occasions.

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    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the southernmost part of Persian Kurdistan. The last of the great Kalhor chiefs was Dāwud Khan, who ruled the tribe in the early 1900s.