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early-17th-century folk hero and poet, whose stories are mainly known among the Turkic peoples but have also passed into other folk literatures and circulate in Azerbaijan and Khorasan. Bards usually perform the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic to the accompaniment of a string instrument, such as the sāz, the dambura, or the dutār.This Article Has Images/Tables.
The traditional venues for the performance of the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic are life-cycle celebrations, private gatherings, and teahouses. In Azerbaijan and northern Khorasan, from the 17th century up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978, teahouses played a pivotal role in the diffusion and the preservation of the epic.This Article Has Images/Tables.
adherents of a form of Iranian religion often identified as a survival or revival of the Zoroastrian heresy, Mazdakism.
Iranians who fought the ʿAbbasid caliph Moʿtaṣem be’llāh (r. 833-41) and enrolled in the Byzantine army of the iconoclast emperor Theophilos I (r. 829-42).
a Hyderabad-based diplomat and historian of Iranian descent best known for his composition of a universal chronicle in Persian in the name of the Qoṭbšāhi ruler, Ebrāhim (r. 1550-80).
(1230-1257), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam and the last lord of Alamut.
a medieval Sogdian town to the west of Samarkand. Its name is most probably related to the Yuezhi Kušān dynasty and its claimed heirs, such as the Kidarites.
Sasanian king (r. 531-579). i. Life and Times (forthcoming).
a series of reforms in Sasanian taxation and military organization, probably initiated already under Kawāḏ I.
The reign of Ḵosrow I (531-79) is generally regarded as the heyday of the Sasanian empire, but his coinage marks the nadir of Sasanian coin art. The most noteworthy features are innovations in reverse typology. In the first type, the assistant figures are shown frontally, a totally new depiction; and they hold what appears to be a spear, an attribute encountered previously under Wahrām II (276-93).This Article Has Images/Tables.